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Stress

A response elicited when a situation overwhelms a person's perceived ability to meet the demands of a situation.

Primary Appraisal

Quick assessment of a meaning of a given environmental event for the individual. The outcome of this appraisal determines whether an emotion response might occur.

When situations produce negative emotions, physiological changes occur in:

1- The Autonomic Nervous System.
2- The Brain.
3- The Endocrine System.

Neuroendocrine System

The hormonal system involved in emotions and stress (pituitary gland, hypothalamus, adrenal glands).

Structure involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress

1 Hypothalamus
2 Pituitary Gland
3 Adrenal Gland (sit atop the kidneys)

Norepinephrine

A neurotransmitter that activates the sympathetic response to stress, increasing heart rate, rate of respiration, and blood pressure in support of rapid action.

Consequences of Stress-inducing situation

Long periods of stress-inducing situation can lead to sustained increases in blood pressure and heart rate due to the concentration of norepinephrine.

Major neuroendrocrine pathways involved in stress responces:

Adrenal gland.
Hypothalamus

Cortisol

The stress hormone produced by the body (adrenal gland specifically) to ensure that the body gets enough fuel during emotional arousal and stress.

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

As defined by Hans Selye, a generalized, nonspecific set of changes in the body that occur during extreme stress.

Alarm Stage (first stage of GAS)

The phase of the general adaptation syndrome in which all of the body's resources respond to a perceived treat.

Resistance Stage (second stage of GAS)

Is the intense physiological effort to either resist or adapt in which glucocorticoids continue to be released. The length of the stage is determined on stressor intensity and the ability to adapt.

Exhaustation Stage (third stage of GAS)

Occurs if an organism falls in its efforts to resist to stressor where stored of energy is depleted and disintegration and death may follow.

Positive Traits & Emotion

Optimist people
- are less likely to feel helpless or depress.
- adjust better to negative life events.
- show better general mental health.

Coping

Act of dealing with stress or emotion.

Problem-Focused Coping

Involved strategies that aim to change the situation that is creating the stress.

Emotion-Focused Coping

Way of dealing with stress that aims to regulate the experience of distress.

Social Network

The cluster or related people.

Benefits of Social Network

-Social support con buffer the affects of stress by providing interpersonal resources for emotional support and problem.
-The health benefits of social connectedness include longer live and reduced susceptibility to colds.

Situations Control

Believing that you have control over life situation, especially traumatic ones, can improves your physiological health. This perception of control provide the greatest benefits in situations that are severe or uncontrolled.

Physiological Reactivity Model

Situation that people deem threatening evoke negatives emotions, which in turn active the SNS. Sustained sympathetic activation in conditions of stress weaken the body's immune system and the increase the likelihood of illness.

Natural Immunity

Form of immunity that is the first response to antigens. (response tipically quick and provide the first line of defense).
Ex. Inflammation. and phagocytosis.

Acquired Immunity

Immunity provided by antibodies or cells produced in the body in response to specific antiagents. An effective immune response occurs only after prior exposure to particular antigen.

Type A Behavior Pattern

A way of responding to challenge to stress, characterized by hostility, impatience, competitiveness, and time urgency. Consider a risk factor of heart diseases.

Type B Behavior Patter

Marked by a relaxed, easygoing approach to life, without the time-urgency, impatience, and hostility of type A. As bright an ambitious and often more successful than type A.

Anorexia Nervosa

An eating disorder in which people cannot maintain 85% of their ideal body weight for their height, have an intense fear of eating, and have a distorted body image.

Bulimia Nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by binge eating and perceived lack of control during the eating section. Regularly engage in self-induce vomiting, strict dieting or fasting. Vigorous exercise in order to prevent weight gain.

Drinking Alcohol

Slow down the central nervous system function, liver damage like cirrhosis or cancer, a drunk person is 3 times most likely to have an accident.

Obesity

Cause high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, arthritis, respiratory disorder, and coronary heart disease.

Smoking

Reduced live expectancy by an average of 10 years, triples the risk of death from heart disease, risk factor for cancer, stroke, lung disease, emphysema and male impotence.

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