APUSH Unit 11: Postwar America

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cold war, civil rights, white flight, judicial activism...

Yalta Conference

-1945
-loose agreements over what will happen in postwar period
-churchill refers to soviet control as iron curtain
-russia bore the heaviest burden of both wars, lost many, wants security, wants control over all of Eastern Europe"
-Stalin could "stretch it all the wa from yalta to washington withoutnever techically breaking it." -FDR

United Nations

-International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
-15 member security council, 10 rotations
-5 permanent members with veto power: US, USSR, England, France, China

Truman Doctrine

-First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
-"The US should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers...to work out their own destinies."
-It should be America's job to support self-determination
-Truman feels he can "push around" other nations because we just dropped 2 atom bombs
-the final draft of it had to be changed emphasis of support of capitolism to support of democracy, but it becomes clear the US is more interested in capitolism

Marshall Plan

-1948
-"European recovery program"
-idea that the US should provide aid to ALL european nations that need it
-$12.5 billion of US aid to W. Europe
-helps us because it allows us to put troops in those places and creates healthy economic markets for american goods
-extended conditional aid to soviets (alter you gov and economic system) but it was rejected
-it the north had similarly stimulated the defeated south after the civil war, the whole nation would have greatly benefitted

George kennan

-American diplomat and ambassador best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the cold war
-wrote "X article" the sources of soviet containment
-said American fundamentally misunderstands soviet motives and actions
-soviets use rhetoric like "destroy america" when they dont really mean it

Postwar Germany

-put into 2 zones (east and west)-berlin is in e. germany controlled by soviets
-stalin makes a powergrab at berlin and creates berlin blockade

Berlin blockade and airlift

-1948-1949
-soviets say no car or truck traffic into berlin, so america drops food into berlin
-more planes used than in any single WWII operation

NATO

-1949
-North Atlantic Treaty Organization
- military alliance for collective security made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country
-US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
-still exists today

Mao's Revolution

-Mao takes over in 1949
-US supports the natinalists under Chang Kai shek
-Mao wants the UN veto power

Korean War

-1950-1953
-UN police action in which security council voted (except USSR who boycotted) to go to war because communist n. korea attacked s. korea
-CONS: lose tens of thousands of troops and gain little
-PROS: showed that the UN was willing to use the military, WWIII avoided

general macarthur

-He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2
-drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War
-wanted to invade an bomb china during korena war but truman refused and fired him, which made truman very unpopular

Soviets get the bomb

-1949
-soviets create and test the A bomb
-created through spies and information gathering abou Abomb
-sales of underground bunkers increase, people thought the russians could take over at any time

McCarthyism

-1938: HUAC- house un-AMerican Activities commitee- many writers, actors, and directors blacklisted because of alleged connections to "subverse organizations"
-1947: Federal Employee loyalty program - required to declare loyalty to gov, constitution
-1950: senetor Joseph McCarthy claimed to have evidence that members of the state dept were communists
-1954: McCarthy censured
put constraints on the public discourse

Senator joseph mcCarthy

-demagogue who makes a name for himself by calling out names
-Murrow takes dwn McCarthy, demands evidence
-MCarthy "goes off the deep end" and accuses too many people eithout proof
-put america into a hysteria

MCarthy and Vietnam

-McCarth has a negative impact during wartime
-people who are knowlegable about vietnam are fired, then gov has little understnading of vietnam (similar to situation with soviets)
-because people are so freaked out about communism at home, also freak out about communism abroad

CIA and Iran 1953

1953
-Iranians fairly elect leader Mossedegh, but when M says he will nationalize the Iranian oil fields which the US has investments in, we install the Shah of Iran
-the Shah is a brutal dictator who rules with the support of the american military
-ilustrates that we are more interested in capitolism than democracy

Warsaw Pact

-treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain
-inresponse to NATO

Suez Crisis

July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power

Eisenhower doctrine

-pledges economic and military aid to any nation threatened with invasion

Gautemala and CIA

-1954
-G's leader wants to nationalize fruit products
-US gov members own shares of United Fruit Company
-CIA involved in military coup to install dictator and manintain US economic interests
-aftereffects of this bad gov exist today
-gives the world a negative view of america

Beat Poets

-known for social & political criticism that challenged the established norms of the time
-part of the counter culture
-allen ginsburg wrote "America" criticizing the red scare's affect on america

Nikita Krushchev

-soviet leader 1953-1964, took over after stalin died
-said "whether you like it or not, history is on our side. we will bury you." -1956, the US inflates this big talk because it creates support for military spending

Sputnik I

-1957
-greatly scares americans
-russians beat us to space!
-leads to massive edu expenditure in math and science-meet the challenges by educating the children of today (like morril land grant act)
-within 12 years, the US puts a man on the moon

Military industrial complex

-concept of how much money and how dedicated we are to the military
-after sputnik americans want a massive investment in technology
-eisenhower says this is our sputnik moment, he believes in military power, but careful about spending
-"prpoer meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals so that security and liberty may prosper together"
-many americans support a large military industrial complex because it keeps us powerful and creates jobs

kitchen debate

-1959
-famous discussion between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev over who has the best system
-nixon boasts the greatness of capitolism shown in washing machines and dishwashers, says "we like to make life easier for our women"
-krushchev says everyone in russia can eat, even if poor quality

Election of 1960

-kennedy democrat, nixon republican
-kennedy wins by a very slim margin
-first time there is a tv debate
-kennedy elected because he is better looking-people who watched tv debate favored kennedy, those who listened thru radio favored nixon

"New Frontier"

-The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election
-He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.

OPEC

-1961
-Organization of petroleum exporting countries
-set production levels and set prices
-america had more oil than anyone else in late 1800's, but by 1948 we use so mcuh we become an oil importer

Berlin wall

-wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
-america objects becuase we favor a free, open society

Fidel Castro

-led the revolution of Cuba and took control of Cuba in 1959; resented past dictators; made Cuba communist
-cubans dislike america becuase we supported a dictator who prtected american business interests and issued the platt ammendment
-made cuba's industries nationalized, and on Jan 1, 1959, "america Owned" land taken away
-america attempts to kill him repeatedly (operation mongoose, bay of pigs)
-calls on russia for help, he and krushchev become good buddies (recall hugging pic)

bay of pigs

-1961
-group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. CIA landed on Cuban coast in an effort to overthrow Castro. -When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

Cuban missile crisis

-1962
-confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
-very close to nulcear war but eventually agree to take them away on both sides (USSR from cuba, US from turkey)

Taft-Hartley Act

1947
-outlawed closed shops and required union leaders to sign loyalty oath
-greatly restricts union power and unions decreasse over time
-passed over taft's veto

Origins of the urban crisis

-urban ghettos were created- deliberate decision of gov and local organizations to separate the poor from the affluent
-1950's is so often looked at as the golden age of american history-not for all

"White Flight"

-working and middle-class white people move away from racial-minority suburbs or inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs
-federal gov provides home loans that favor white people
-housing is a function of poverty
-many businesses move to suburbs too
-blacks dont have access to jobs in the suburbs

Dixiecrats

-strom thurmond starts his own party because more and more blacks are moving toward the democratic party because its support for civil rights, in turn, mass white exodus to republican party
-uses "states rights" as a buzz word for racism and segregation= dog whistle politics
-say they support constitution, individual rights, segregation, keeping black-white marraiges illegal
-say they oppose gov intervention for fair employment and "totalitarian gov"

Brown v. Board of education

-1954
-supreme court unamimously rules that separate in inherently unequal
-overturns plessey v ferguson which made lawful separate but equal facilities
-by 1950's some schools build nice black schools to maintain segregation, but Marshall argues that separation leads to inequality
-say the states must move with "all deliberate speed" and make an effort to end segrgation within their state

Emmet till

-1953
-13 year old boy visiting south was beaten, killed, and dumped in a river for whistling at a white woman
-within civil rights movements, theres a dramatic use of imagery such as the grotesque pic of emmet, to convince people racism is wrong

Rosa Parks

-civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement
-face of the boycott, appears dignified and respectable

Civil rights movement

-movement in the US beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
-isnt only about interpersonal racism, about ending racism that affects whether you can get a job, own a home, and other basic economic rights
-effective in making sure the media is always there
-by being polite they were challenging the system of "politeness"
-millions of people are involved including whites, but not enough

Montgomery bus boycott

-hard to maintain because activists had to walk and endure abuse and hot weather
-lasted 381 days, when court ruled segregated buses unconstitutional

Martin Luther king, jr

-evangelical christian nonviolent civil rights activist leader
-utilized church by quoting scripture often "love thy neighbor"
-made america better, but many whites hate him
-wins nobel prize and time man of the year
-assassinated in memphis, tn in 1968

judicial activism

-when the suprme court goes beyond the constitution to make an opinion
-in basically every decision this will happen

little rock nine

-In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High.
-The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school.
-an angry mob made in necessary for the army to escort the students
-many parents boycotted segregated schools and formed segregation academies

SNCC

-student nonviolent coordinating commitee
-in greensboro, nc, first sit-in at lunch counter
-protesters trained to be polite, wait patiently, uses the polite system against them
-gets more radical over time

Freedom rides

-political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
-buses were often attacked but the gov does very little

James Meredith

-served in navy, intelligent black who wanted to attend Ole Miss
-rejected and sues, gets them to admit him
-shot in 1966 because he is a negro agitator

Medgar evers

-leader of the NAACP and WWII veteran who is shot and killed
-immoralized by bob dylan song "pawn in the game"

Letter from birmingham jail

-mlk takes a passionate, but not bitter, tone
-"injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere"
-"wait almost always means never", justice delayed is justice denied

March on washington

-In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill
-MLK gave his "I Have a Dream" speech
-about 250,000 ralliers
-malcom X claims MLK is hurting the civil rights movement because events like this are too controlled

Feminist movement

-betty friedan wrote "the feminine mystique" about how empty the lives of rich white housewives are in 1963
-women's self worth came from being a good wife, having children
-birthcontrol pill frees women, becomes mostly acceptable in 1960's but it scared fathers and husbands
-moving toward sexual freedom in 60's, contributes to the tear in the fabric of society

Birmingham campaign

-Nonviolent protests for Civil Rights in Birmingham, AL during the late '50s and throughout the 60s
-During one march, Birmingham Sheriff Bull Connor turned fire hoses on the peaceful protesters
-his cruel act shocked the public and gathered the media attention
-important to the success of the Civil Rights Movement

freedom summer

-1964
-blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.

civil rights act of 1964

-outlawed discrimination in public accomodation that use interstate commerce (hotels, restaurants, theatres)
-prohibits discrimination in employment, excluding members of communist party
-establishes EEOC

EEOC

-Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
-Enforces laws to prevent unfair treatment on the job due to sex, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, or age.

Voting rights act of 1965

-bans literacy tests
-requires preclearance for states with a history of voting discrimination-must notify gov before changing something about the voting process

Eisenhower

-United States general during WWII
-"I like Ike" campaign slogan
-overall, did very little for civil rights

john F kennedy

-president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis.
-lots of people who voted for him are racist southerners, kennedy wants to keep their support so he drags his feet on civil rights cause

interstate highway act

-1956 Eisenhower 20 yr plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history
-helpful in transport bombs/missiles/military across the country

Lyndon B. Johnson

-took office when kennedy was assassinated in 1963
-signed the civil rights act of 1964 and the voting rights act of 1965
-had a war on poverty and created great societyand other programs that provided welfare
-most important legislation was medicare and medicaid
-great society faltered when vietnam spending increased

affirmative action

-policy designed to redress past discrimination against minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
-LBJ signed executive order requiring contractors to take affirmative action to make sure people are not discriminated against
-MLK supports it
-causes some resentment and whites to turn from the civil rights movement

GI Bill

-law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations

gentrification

-forcing african americans out of their neighborhoods

Malcolm x

-Black Muslim leader part of nation of islam who said Blacks needed to have separate society from whites
-called whites "white devils"
-says christianity is a way of enslaving blacks
-says better jobs and housing are only tokenism/ temporary solutions
-gains influence in 64 and 65
-later changed his views
-assasinated in 1965 in power struggle with elijah muhammud
-radical and militant, scares many away from the movement

race riots

-rioting in major US. cities due to frustration of discrimination
-in 1965 bloody riot erupted in Watts, a black ghetto in LA, Blacks were enraged by police brutality and burned and looted their own neighborhoods for a week
-In April 1968, MLK was assassinated, riots spread to over 100 cities across the country
-marked increasing militant confrontation in the black struggle

black panthers

-militant organization
-stokley carmichael was leader of SNCC and he turned it very radical and black panther was formed in 1966
-not militant or racist at first, but radicalized and became ineffective in gaining more rights

COINTELPRO

-counter intelligence program
-FBI radicalizes civil rights organizations and turns them against each other to disrupt their effectiveness
-leader of black panther assassinated
-leeter written to MLK to commit suicide

church commission

-gov investigates the CIA/FBI
-investigations based upon "vague standards"

orangeburg massacre

1968
-national gaurd kills three people who protested segregation at bowling alley

baby boom

-An increase in population by almost 30 million people after WWII
-This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.
-dr. spock books about how to raise your baby

international monetary fund

-a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies

"voice of America"

1948
-This government agency was created to make radio (and later TV) broadcasts of news and entertainment into foreign countries, especially into those controlled by communists
-boasts american freedom and democracy

fair deal

-economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment.
-led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.

Rosenberg trials

Husband and Wife accused of stealing and plotting to convey atomic secrets to soviet agents during WWII.

counter culture

-group within society that openly rejects and opposes society's values and norms
-long hair, sexual revolution, drugs
-beat poets
-beatles provide engine for it in america "LSD"

1960's

-decade of massive revolution
-sexual revolution, MLK and malcolm X and JFK assassinated, turning towards drugs, increased action in vietnam

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