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Ultrasound gallbladder pathology ch 7

Adenomomatosis

Small polypoid projections from the gallbladder wall

Ampulla of Vater

Small opening in the duodenum in which the pancreatic and common bile duct enter to release secretions

Bilirubin

Yellowish pigment in bile formed by the breakdown of red blood cells

Cholangitis

Inflammation of the bile duct

Cholecystectomy

Removal of the gallbladder

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder; may be acute or chronic

Cholecystokinin

Hormone secreted into the blood by the mucosa of the upper small intestine; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and pancreatic secretion of enzymes

Choledochal cyst

Dilation of the common duct that may cause obstruction

Choledochalithasis

Stones in the bile duct

Cholelithiasis

Gallstones in the gallbladder

Cholesterosis

Variant of adenomyatosis; cholesterol polyps

Common bile duct

Extends from the point where the common hepatic duct meets the cystic duct; drains into the duodenum after it joins with the main pancreatic duct

Common Hepatic Duct

Bile duct system that drains the liver into the common bile duct

Cystic Duct

Connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct

Gallbladder

Storage pouch for bile

Hartman's pouch

Small part of the gallbladder that lies near the cystic duct where stones may collect

Heister's valve

Tiny valves found within the cystic duct

Hydrops

Massive enlargement of the gallbladder

Jaundice

Excessive bilirubin accumulation causes yellow pigmentation of the skin; first seen in the whites of the eyes

Junctional fold

Small septum within the gallbladder, usually arising from the posterior wall

Klatskin's tumor

Cancer at the bifurcation of the hepatic ducts; may cause asymmetric obstruction of the billary tree

Murphy's sign

Positive sign implies exquisite tenderness over the area of the gallbladder upon palpation

Pancreatic duct

Travels horizontally through the pancreas to join the common bile duct at the Ampula of Vater

Phrygian cap

Gallbladder variant in which part of the fundus is bent back on itself

Polyp

Small, well defined soft tissue projection from the gallbladder wall

Porcelain Gallbladder

Calcification of the gallbladder wall

Porta Hepatis

Central area of the liver where the portal vein, common duct, and hepatic artery enter

Sludge

Low-level echoes found along the posterior margin of the gallbladder; move with change in position

Sphincter of Oddi

Small muscle that guards the ampula of Vater

wall echo shadow (WES) sign

Sonographic pattern found when the gallbladder is packed with stones

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