the name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
A German scientist who proposed the theroy of continental drift
the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface
Circular currents in the mantle caused by the magma being heated by the core of the Earth.
fossil evidence of continental drift
Evidence of the same organisms found on different continents.
a theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move over magma in the mantle
Hot, fluid rock in the mantle.
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle.
sideways force on rock that contributes to seafloor spreading.
A process where new crust, or raised structures called parallel ridges, form on the ocean's floor. This is caused by magma flows upward in cracks where it cools/hardens.
An underwater land mass where new ocean floor is formed. Over time, it could turn into a mountain range.
earths crust located under the ocean.
Evidence of seafloor spreading
The youngest rock is in the mid-ocean ridges. Older rock is farther from the ridges.
Magnetism of seafloor rock
Additional evidence of seafloor spreading. Iron particles in ridges "freeze" in the direction of the magnetic field at the time the ridge was formed.
Volcanic seafloor rock
The fact the rock is this type is evidence it comes from magma.
Ways plates can move
Move apart, collide, slide past one another.
Places were two plates move apart. Most of these are at mid-ocean ridges.
They are located on a divergent boundary.
Great Rift Valley
In Africa, this is located on a divergent boundary.
This continent is splitting, one day the split might form a new ocean.
Places where two plates collide.
These can be formed by convergent boundaries when colliding plates lift and crumple each other.
Earthquakes and volcanic activity
These often occur on convergent boundaries.
The process of one plate going under another. Often, one of the plates in this process is part of an ocean floor.
Deep valley in the ocean floor that forms along a subduction zone.
a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions.
Transform boundary effects
Earthquakes can occur along these boundaries as the strain on the rock builds up and then is quickly released.
A narrow fissure in rock.
Number of major tectonic plates.
Mid-ocean ridges - locations
These occur along diverging players.
Located where the South American Plate is moving away from he African Plate.
Himalayas and Apls
Large mountain ranges which are the location of convergent boundaries.
Located where the Indian Plate is colliding with the Eurasian Plate
Located with the African Plate is colliding with the Eurasian Plate.
Transform boundaries - locations
Most are on the ocean floor.
San Andreas Fault
Most noticeable transform boundary between the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate.
Seven major tectonic plates
African Plate, Antarctic Plate, Eurasian Plate, Indo-Australian Plate, North American Plate, Pacific Plate, South American Plate