CHEMISTRY FINAL

45 terms by ct959 

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melting

change of state from a solid to a liquid

freezing

change of state from a liquid to a solid

condensation

change of state from a gas to a liquid

evaporation

change of state from a liquid to a gas

sublimation

change of state from a solid to a gas

deposition

change of state from a gas to a solid

properties

characteristics that can be used to describe a substance

physical properties

colour, lustre, melting point, boiling point, hardness, malleability, ductility, crystal shape, solubility, density are examples of these

chemical properties

bawah - burn, air, water, acid and heat are all ways in which a substance can interact

pure substance

made up of one kind of matter

element

pure substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler substance

compound

two or more elements that have combined

mixture

a combination of more than one substance

heterogeneous

each substance in the mixture is visible

homogeneous

of the same kind; uniform in composition throughout, appears like one (also called a solution)

physical change

when a material changes state, can be reversed

chemical change

occurs when two or more substances react and create new substances, a change in colour, odour, light given off, formation of a gas or solid are ways to tell

Alkali Metals

Most reactive metals on periodic table. Very reactive to water and air. Group 1 on table.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group 2 on periodic table. 2nd most reactive group of metals on the table

Dalton

Billiard Ball Theory - All atoms were balls of different size.

Thompson

Raisin Bun Model - Negative charges (electronspread out through positive sphere

Nagaoka

Solar System Model - negative charges orbit around a positive sphere

Rutherford

Discovered the nucleus and that atoms are mainly empty space

Bohr

Electron Shell Model - electrons orbit the nucleus in shells and each shell holds a certain amount of electrons.

Chadwich

Discovered the protons and neutrons inside the nucleus.

Halogens

Group 17 on periodic table. Most reactive non-metals. Chlorine is a well known one from this group.

Noble Gases

Group 18 on periodic table. These elements do not react with any other element on the periodic table as their valence shell is full of electrons.

Group

Vertical column on the table - there are 18 of them.

Period

Horizontal row on the table - there are 7 of them.

Metals

Are all located on the left of the staircase. Properties of metals include: conduct electricity, shiny, malleable, ductile.

Non-Metals

Are all located on the right of the staircase. Properties include: can be solid or gas, dull and brittle.

Metalloids

Are a unique set located near the staircase. These elements can display properties of both metals and non-metals.

Atomic Number

Number of protons in an atom of an element

Atomic Mass

Number of protons + neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of an element.

Mendeleev

The father of our modern day periodic table. Arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass and left blanks for the undiscovered elements at the time.

Proton

positive charge found in nucleus of atom (p+)

Electron

Negative charge found orbiting nucleus of atom (e-)

Neutron

Neutrally charged particle found in nucleus of atom (n)

Number of Protons in Oxygen

8

20

Number of Neutrons in Calcium

Symbol for Neon

Ne

K

Potassium

6.94

Atomic Mass of Lithium

Ion Charges on Cu

+ and 2+

ionic compounds

metal + non-metal

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