A political boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in place while people moved in to occupy the surrounding area.
The written legal description of a boundary between two countries or territories.
The translation of the written terms of a boundary treaty into an official cartographic representation.
The actual placing of a political boundary on the landscape by means of barriers, fences, walls, or other markers.
A state that posses a roughly circular shape from which the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.
Boundaries that mark breaks in the human landscape based on differences in ethnicity.
A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape.
A piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is not a part.
A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state.
A state whose territory consists of several separated parts, not a contiguous whole.
Zone of advance penetration, usually of contention; an area not yet fully integrated into a politically organized area.
Political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines.
A term associated with the work of Robert Sack that describes the efforts of human societies to influence events and achieve social goals by exerting, and attempting to enforce, control over specific geographical areas.
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
A state or territory that is small in both size and population.
Legally, a term encompassing all the citizens of a state.
Love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it.
A recognized member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by a people who see themselves as a single, united nation.
A state that completely surrounds another one.
Boundary defined by a physical land mark like a river or a lake
An overall set of values widely shared within a society.
The subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface.
A state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main territory
A border that has ceased to function but whose imprints are still evident on the cultural landscape.
The revival of learning and culture.
A principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states.
A politically organized body of people under a single government.
a political boundary that developed contemporaneously with the evolution of the cultural landscape.
The layer of soil between the topsoil and bedrock.
A political boundary placed by powerful outsiders on a developed human landscape.
A state's geographical shape, which can affect its spatial cohension and political viability.
A government based on religious authority.
A city in which government leaders meet and work.
A term employed to designate forces that tend to divide a country.
The forces that unite people and countries.
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
A term with several connotations. The center, or the heart or focus.
Subfield of geography that deals with various spatial aspects of voting systems, voting behaviors, and voter representation.
A political-territorial system wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have comment interest yet allow these various entities to retain their own identities.
Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border.
The study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur.
Redistricting for advantage, or the practive of dividing areas into electoral districts.
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
A state that possesses more than one core or dominant region, be it economic, political, or cultural.
The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include all stages of life.
The term coined by Nicholas Spykman referring to the coastal rim of Eurasia.
The state of living together in tribes.
A nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state.
The economic union of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
A group of countries that acts as a single market, without trade barriers between member countries.
Based on cultural objectives although the distinction between cultural and political goals is sometimes blurred.
Azn international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
Transboundary cooperartion zones in Europe that conform to the rules of the Euregion Council.
Exclusive Economic Zone
An oceanic zone extending up to 200 nautical miles from a shoreline, where the coastal state can control fishing, mineral exploitation, and additional activites by all other countries.
Actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally.
Law of The Sea
The United Nations Convention on UNCLOS; established states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the Earth's seas and oceans and their resources.
The system of drawing a political boundary midway between two states' coastlines when the territorial seas or EEZ are narrower than twice the standard or adopted limit.
A mutual treaty of assistance that commits each nation to support one another if they should be attacked.
When states join together to further their shared political ideologies, economic objectives, and strategic goals.
A central political apparatus coordinating the economic, soical, and foreign policy of its member states.
The idea that differing nations can cooperate so closely for their mutual benefit that they can share the same government, economy, social policies, and military.
Zone of seawater adjacent to a country's coast, held to be part of the national territory and treated as a segment of the state itself.
In September 1945, President Harry Truman proclaimed that the US will regulate fisheries' activities in areas of the high seas adjacent to its coastline.
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them.
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
People of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture.
The identification and loyalty a person may feel for his or her nation.
A state, by virtue of its border location between geopolitical power cores, that absorbs and assimilates cultures and traditions of its neighbors without being dominated by them.
The expansion of economics, political and cultural processes to the point that they beome global in scale and impact.
New World Order
A description of the international system resulting from the collapse of the soviet union in which the balance of the nuclear terror theoretically no longer determined the destinies of states.
Religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy.