The manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions.
Thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available.
Trial and Error
A problem-solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work.
A problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure, or method that inevitably produces the correct solution.
A problem-solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions.
Coming to a conclusion or making a judgement without conscious awareness of the thought processes involved.
The tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual or customary way.
A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated on the basis of how readily available other instances of the event are in memory.
A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated by comparing how similar it is to the prototype of the event.
A system for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful statements.
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
The hypothesis that differences among languages cause differences in the thoughts of their speakers.
The study of animal learning, memory, thinking, and language; also called comparative cognition.
The global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment.
A measurement of intelligence in which an individual's mental level is expressed in terms of the average abilities of a given age group.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
A measure of general intelligence derived by comparing an individual's score with the scores of others in the same age group.
A test designed to measure a person's level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment in a particular area.
The administration of a test to a large, representative sample of people under uniform conditions for the purpose of establishing norms.
Normal Curve or Normal Distribution
A bell-shaped distribution of individual differences in a normal population in which most scores cluster around the average score.
The ability of a test to produce consistent results when administered on repeated occasions under similar conditions.
G Factor or General Intelligence
The notion of a general intelligence factor that is responsible for a person's overall performance on tests of mental ability.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg's theory that there are three distinct forms of intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical.