(5) Epithelium

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CHARACTERISTICS OF EPITHELIUM

- highly cellular tissue
- little intercellular material
- lines or covers surfaces
- has no blood supply
- high regenerative capacity
- rests on a BM
- structural polarity
- forms the endocrine and exocrine glands

CHARACTERISTICS OF EPITHELIUM

- highly ____ tissue
- little _____ material
- lines or covers ______
- has no _____ supply
- ___ regenerative capacity
- rests on a ______
- structural _____
- forms the ___ and ___ glands

- protection
- selective permeability barrier
- absorption, secretion, excretion
- sensory reception
- reproduction

what are the 5 functions of epithelium?

- protects underlying CT
- surfaces kept moist, lubricated, abrasion free
- immune protection, intarepithelial lymphocytes, Langerhans cells, M cells

FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIUM

PROTECTION
- protects underlying ____
- surfaces kept ___ (3 things)
- _____ protection, intraepithelial lymphocytes, Langherhans cels, M-cells

ions, fluids

FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIUM

SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY BARRIER
- controls the passage of ___ and ___

- nutrients are absorbed, wastes are excreted
- cells synthesize and release gland products, enzymes, hormones, mucus

FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIUM

ABSORPTION, SECRETION, and EXCRETION
- nutrients are ___, wastes are ___
- cells synthesize and release ___ (4 things)

- eye
- ear
- tongue
- olfactory area

FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIUM

SENSORY RECEPTION
- neuroepithelium of ___ (4 places)

germ

FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIUM

REPRODUCTION
formation of male and female ____ cells

- apical domain
- lateral domain
- basal domain

what are the 3 domains of a POLARIZED epithelial cell?

apical domain

which domain is exposed to the lumen or external environment?

- cilia
- microvilli

the apical domain has structures impt for protection of the epithelial surfaces (i.e. ___) or for the absorption of substances (i.e. ____)

lateral domain

which domain faces the neighboring epithelial cells?

cell adhesion molecules and junctional complexes

the lateral domains are linked to each other by ___ and ___

basal domain

which domain is associated with the basement membrane that separates the epithelium from CT?

- protection
- regulation of water and nutrient uptake

what are the 2 functions of the apical domain?

- hydrolases
- Na transporters
- Cl channels

what are the 3 components of the apical domain?

- cell contact
- cell adhesion
- cell communication

what are the 3 functions of the lateral domain?

- adhesion molecules
- junctional complex
- communicating junctions

what are the 3 components of the lateral domain?

- signal transduction
- signal reception
- ion gradients

what are the 2 functions of the basal lateral domain?

- growth factor receptors
- hormone receptors
- anion channel

what are the 3 components of the basal lateral domain?

cell to ECM or substrate contact

what is the 1 function of the basal domain?

- integrins
- HSPG

what are the 2 components of the basal domain?

- fibronectin
- laminin
- type IV collagen
- proteoglycans

what are the 4 components of the BM?

- number of layers
- shape of cells in most superficial layer
- surface modifications

what are the 3 ways epithelium can be classified?

- simple (1 layer)
- stratified (>1 layer)

what are the 2 classifications based on numbers of layers?

- squamous (flat)
- cuboidal (square)
- columnar (rectangular)

what are the 3 classifications based on the shape of the cells in the most superficial layer?

- cilia
- microvilli
- keratinized

what are 3 examples of classifications based on surface modifications?

transitional (relaxed or distended)

what is the type of epithelium in the urinary system?

pseudostratified columnar

what is the type of epithelium in the respiratory system?

1

simple epithelium is ___ cells thick

simple epithelium that lines BLOOD and LYMPHATIC vessels

what is endothelium?

simple CUBOIDAL epithelium that lines all body cavities (peritoneum, pericardium, pleura)

what is mesothelium?

thin endothelium meant for rapid diffusion

what is simple squamous endothelium designed for?

in all ducts

functions in
- secretion
- absortpion
- protection

where is simple cuboidal epithelium found?

what are its 3 functions?

INTESTINE
- absorptive (microvilli)
- secretotory (goblet cells)

RESPIRATORY
- absorptive
- secretory
- ciliated (9+2)

how is simple columnar epithelium INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY tract?

simple squamous epithelium (endothelium)

vessels are lined by ___

simple cuboidal epithelium

ducts are lined by ___

simple columnar epithelium

GI tract is lined by ___

pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium

the respiratory system is lined by ___

pseudostratified columnar epithelium with sterocilia

the epididymis is lined by ___

transitional epithelium

the urinary system is lined by ___

basal lamina

pseudostratified epithelium consists of basal and columnar cells resting on a ____

columnar

in pseudostratified epithelium, only ___ cells reach the luminal surface

dome

urinary epithelium is made of ___ shaped cells on the surface, projecting into the lumen when the organ is not stretched or distended

flattened

urinary epithelial cells become ____ when the organ fills up with urine

outer

nuclei are visible in the ___ layer of the urinary epithelium

2

stratified epithelia has ___ or more cell layers

- stratified squamous
- stratified cuboidal
- stratified columnar

what are the 3 types of stratified epithelia?

protection and secretion

stratified squamous epithelium functions in what 2 things?

stratified squamous

what is the most frequent epithelium found in the body?

- nonkeratinized
- highly keratinzed

what are the 2 types of stratified squamous?

- esophagus
- vagina

nuclei might be visible in the outer layer

where is nonkeratinized stratified squamous found?

will there be nuclei found in the outer layer?

- epidermis of skin

nuclei are ABSENT in the outer layer

where is highly keratinized stratified squamous found?

will there be nuclei found in the outer layer?

stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium

identify A

stratified squamous keratinized epithelium

identify B

- microvilli
- sterocilia
- cilia

the apical domain of some epithelium can display 3 different specializations. what are they?

fingerlike projections that increase SURFACE AREA

what are microvili?

- actin core
- other proteins extend to the TERMINAL WEB

what are microvilli made of?

a filamentous network of cytoskeletal proteins into which the actin core and other proteins of microvilli extend

what is the terminal web?

true

TRUE OR FALSE
terminal web is inside the cell

glycocalyx (fuzzy sugar coat)

describe the exterior of microvilli

- itnestinal epithelium
- portions of kidney

forms BRUSH BORDER

where are microvilli found?
what does it form?

long and branching finger like projections

what are sterocilia?

actin core but
NO AXONEMES (as do cilia)

what are sterocilia made of?

epididymis

where is sterocilia found?

motile luminal specializations originating from BASAL BODIES

what are cilia?

basal bodies

where do cilia originate from?

rootlets to the apical portion of cytoplasm

what anchors cilia?

9 triplet microtubules in an array WITHOUT a central microtubular component

what does the basal body contain?

- transport mucous and cells

what is the function of cilia?

- trachea
- oviduct

where is cilia found?

axoneme

cilium consists of a 9+2 microtubular doublet arrangement called an ___

simple columnar epithelium

small intestine

identify the type of epithelium

where would this be found?

brush border (microvilli)

identify the arrowhead

inraepithelial lymphocytes

identify the arrows

simple columnar epithelium from the SI

identify the epithelium

- microvilli
- lumen
- goblet cells
- nucleu
- basement membrane

identify the
- Mv
- Lu
- MD
- N
- BM

simple squamous

identify the epithelium

transitional epithelium

identify the epithelium

cuboidal

identify the epithelium

columnar

identify the epithelium

stratified columnar epithelium

identify the epithelium

intralobular duct

identify the duct in the center of the field

goblet cell

identify the arrow

CT

the duct is surrounded by ___

stratified cuboidal epithelium

identify the epithelium

ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with GOBLET cells

identify the epithelium

- layer of basal nuclei
- nuclei in intermediate layer
- area of cytoplasm near the apical surface
- modification of the apical tissue

what are the 4 criteria of identifying pseudostratified epithelium?

stratified squamous epithelium

identify the epithelium

pseudostratified epitheilum of the EPIDIDYMIS with STEROCILIA

identify the epithelium (what does it have and where is it)?

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