The Urinary System

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Blood Flow Through the Kidneys

Renal Aretey---> Segmental Arteries-------> Interlobar Arteries --------> Arcuate Arteries -------> Interlobular Arteries---------> Afferent Arteriole------> Glomerular Capillaries------> Efferent Arterioles -------> Peritubular Capillaries-------> Interlobular Veins------> Arcuate Veins-----> Interlobar Veins----> Renal Vein

Three Main Regions of the Kidney

-Renal cortex-a smooth area/most superficial region
-Renal pyramids-located in the medulla and has cone shaped pyramids that have extensions of the cortex (the base of each pyramid faces the cortex)
-Renal papilla-is the apex that is pointed towards the renal sinus

Urine Formation and Flow

Glomerulus----> Capsular space---> Proximal convoluted tubule---> descending loop----> ascending loop---> distal convoluted tubule---> Collecting duct----> papillary duct------> renal papilla-----> minor calyce----> major calyce----> renal pelvis-----> urethra-----> external urethral orifice

Nephron

Urine-forming structure of the kidney

Renal Medulla

Region of the kidney deep to the cortex; contains collecting duct

Renal Columns

Extensions of renal cortex found in between renal pyramids

Papillary Ducts

Urine Flowing through this structure drains into a minor calyx

Adipose Capsule

Located between renal fascia and renal capsule

Renal Papilla

Apex of renal pyramid

Major calyces

Urine flowing through this structure drains into the renal pelvis

Renal Hilus

Vertical fissure in concave surface of kidney through which blood vessels and ureters pass

Renal Capsule

Covers the outer surface of kidney

Renal Fascia

Dense irregular connective tissue that covers the adipose capsule and attaches the kidney to the abdominal wall

Renal Pelvis

Recieves urine from the major calyces

Renal Sinus

Space within kidney that is adjacent to renal medulla, contains calyces and renal pelvis

Minor Calyces

Cup-like structure that is located in renal sinus that receives urine from openings of papillary ducts

Renal Pyramids

Cone-shaped structures located within the renal medulla

Renal Cortex

Outermost region of the kidney, contains renal corpuscles

Urinary bladder

Detrusor muscle is the main muscle for this structure

Prostatic Urethra

Region of male urethra that passes through the prostate gland

Urethral Openings

Two openings in posterior urinary bladder wall

Spongy Urethra

Region of male urethra that passes through penis

Trigone

Area bounded by urethral openings and internal urethral orifice

External Urethral Sphincter

Voluntary skeletal muscle in urogenital diaphragm that allows passage of urine to exterior

Ureters

Carries urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder

Urethra

Urine is excreted through this opening

Internal Urethral Sphincter

Circular smooth muscle that involuntarily controls passage of urine from the urinary bladder to the urethra

Internal Urethral

Anterior opening in urinary bladder that leads into urethra

Membranous Urethra

Region of male urethra that passes through urogenital diapragm

Afferent Arterole

Blood vessel that delivers blood to glomerulus

Peritubular Capillaries

Blood from the efferent arterole flows into this capillary bed

Glomerular Capsule

Structure that surrounds glomerulus and collects filtrate

Loop of Henle

Section of renal tubule that descends into medulla

Glomerulus

Capillary network within the renal corpuscle

Renal Capsule

Structure composed of glomerulus and glomerular capsule

Efferent Arterole

Blood vessel that drains blood from glomerulus

Vasa Recta

Capillary loops that extend from the efferent arterole and run along the loop of Henle (nephron loop) of juxtamedullary nephrons

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