Final Lab Exam- Anatomy and Physiology 2

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urinary system structures

ureter, urinary bladder, urethra

kidney structures

renal capsule, renal cortex, renal medulla, renal column, renal pyramid, renal papilla, major calyx, minor calyx, renal pelvis, renal artery, renal vein

nephron structures

renal corpuscle: glomerulus, glomerular capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), nephron loop (loop of Hele): descending loop, ascending loop, distal convoluted tubule (DCT), collecting duct (CD)

urine

waste products that move out of the kidneys through the ureters and get stored in the urinary bladder

involved in the kidneys

maintenance of homeostasis

urinalysis

analysis of urine, determines composition of extracellular fluid and the state of kidney function

urechrome

normal yellow color (product of hemoglobin breakdown)

urine color: normal

colorless, pale yellow, dark yellow

urine color: dark yellow (cause)

dehydration, carrots, vitamins A, C, & B

urine color: normal or abnormal

amber/orange, yellow-green, green/blue-green, pink/red

urine color: abnormal

brown/black

urine color: amber/orange (cause)

bilirubin (bile duct blockage), carrots, vitamins A & C, riboflavin

urine color: yellow-green (cause)

bilirubin oxidized to biliverdin

urine color: green/blue-green (cause)

pseudomonas (bacterial) infection, chlorophyll-containing foods

urine color: pink/red (cause)

red blood cells/hemoglobin (tissue damage), myoglobin (muscle damage [large amounts can cause kidney failure]), beets, blackberries, rhubarb

myoglobin

oxygen-carrier in muscle tissue

urine color: brown/black (cause)

heavy bleeding, hemoglobin oxidized to methemoglobin, myoglobin

appearance: normal

clear

appearance: normal or abnormal

slightly cloudy, cloudy, turbid

urobilinogen test: normal

less than 1 mg/dl

glucose test: normal

negative

ketones test: normal

negative

bilirubin test: normal

negative

protein test: normal

negative (0-8 mg/dl)

nitrite test: normal

negative

leukocytes test: normal

negative

blood/hemoglobin test: normal

negative

pH test: normal

4.5-8.0

specific gravity test: normal

1.001-1.028 g/ml

urobilinogen test: abnormal

more than 1 mg/dl

glucose test: abnormal

positive

ketones test: abnormal

positive

bilirubin test: abnormal

positive

protein test: abnormal

above 8 mg/dl

nitrite test: abnormal

positive

leukocytes test: abnormal

positive

blood/hemoglobin test: abnormal

positive

pH test: abnormal

acidic (below 4.5), alkaline (above 8.0)

specific gravity test: abnormal

above 1.028 g/ml, below 1.001 g/ml

urine sediment

microscopic particles present in a sample of urine (another component of urinalysis)

urinalysis strip

tests color of urine

digestive system stages

ingestion, digestion, absorption, defecation

oral cavity to anus

oral cavity, lips, palate, tongue, pharynx, teeth: incisors, canines, premolars (bicuspids), molars, salivary glands: parotid glands, sublingual gland, submandibular gland, esophagus

stomach

cardiac region, fundic region, body, gastric rugae, pyloric region: pyloric (gastroduodenal) sphincter, pylorus

liver

falciform ligament, left lobe, right lobe, quadrate lobe, hepatic portal vein, proper hepatic artery, hepatic ducts (left and right), common hepatic duct

gallbladder and pancreas

gall bladder: cystic duct, bilde duct; pancreas: pancreatic duct

small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

large intestine

cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal, internal anal sphincter, external anal sphincter

number of liver lobes

4 lobes

liver function

secretes bile

bile function

aids in fat digestion

how food moves along esophagus

peristalsis

peristalsis

constriction and relaxation of muscles in esophagus

helps in activation of pepsinogen in the stomach

hydrochloric acid

structural parts of small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

important process of large intestine

reabsorbs water and electrolytes and transforms it to feces

end of cecum

appendix

pathway after the rectum

anal canal and internal and external anal sphincter

secreted by pancreas

pancreatic juice

ingredients of pancreatic juice

alkaline mixture of water, enzymes, zymogens, sodium bicarbonate, other electrolytes

alkaline

a pH base

zymogens

in active enzymes

triglycerides

fat

function of the spleen

controls blood volume

hydrolysis

enzymes add water to a large molecule, to split the molecule into smaller pieces so that the body can absorb it into the blood stream

lock and key theory

a substrate fits into its enzyme just like a key fits a lock

catalyse activity reaction rate: fresh liver and H2O2

quick reaction (5)

catalyse activity reaction rate: boiled liver and H202

no reaction

catalyse activity reaction rate: fresh liver and H202 and HCl

little reaction (1)

H202

hydrogen peroxide

HCl

hydrochloric acid

what HCl does to pH

it lowers pH

effects enzyme when livers is boiled

catalase is denatured

catalase: define

common enzyme fond in nearly all living organisms

catalase: function

catalyzes decomposition of H202 to become water and oxygen

gametes: define

haploids (half of chromosomes)

zygote: define

diploid cell

meiosis: define

production of haploids

mitosis: define

male and female gamete fuse to form a zygote

pathway of developing "baby"

zygote > embryo > fetus

male reproductive system

scrotum, testis, seminiferous tubules, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens: ampulla, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urthra, penis: glans of penis, prepuce

female reproductive system

mons pubis, labium majus, labium minus, clitoris, urethra, vagina, cervix, ovary

female reproductive system

uterus: body, fundus, endometrium, myometrium, uterine tube: infundibulum, fimbriae, ampulla, isthmus

female reproductive system with fetus

placenta, amnion, amniotic fluid, chorion, uterus, umbilical cord

graafian follicle

epididymis

vasectomy: define

severs the ductus (vas) deferens

tubal ligation: define

uterine tubes are cut

spermatogenesis: define

production of sperm

oogenesis: define

production of eggs

stages of mitosis

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase/cytokinesis

mitosis: prophase

dark purple blob in middle

mitosis: metaphase

blob lines up

mitosis: anaphase

two purple lines and spindle fibers in between

mitosis: telophase/cytokinesis

cleavage in between cells

mitosis: prophase

mitosis: metaphase

mitosis: anaphase

mitosis: telophase/cytokinesis

mitosis

chromosomes genetic makeup does not change and the end result are only two daughter cells

meiosis

chromosomes of each homologous pair join and exchange portions of DNA (creating a new combination of genes) and 4 daughters cells are produced

meiosis: male lifetime

birth to death

meiosis I: female lifetime

starts at birth and every month until menopause

meiosis II: female lifetime

after egg is fertilized

# of viable cells produced: female

1

# of viable cells produced: male

4

mitosis: diploid/haploid #

starts with a diploid, ends with a diploid

meiosis: diploid/haploid #

starts with a diploid, ends with a haploid (i.e. start with 6, end with 3)

meiosis I/II

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