Psychology Exam One

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Define "Pyche", and "logos"

Mind, and knowledge or study

Define Psychology

The Scientific study of behavior and mental processes

3 Goals of Empiricism

1. measure and describe behaviors
2. to gather empirical evidence: information gained from direct observation and measurement
3. to gather data

Define "Research Method"

A systematic procedure for answering scientific questions

List 10 things a psychologist might research

Development, Learning, Personality, Sensation and Perception, Comparative, Cognitive, Biopsychyology, Gender, Social Cultural, Evolutionary

Define "Animal Model"

When and animals behavior is used to derive principles that may apply to human behavior

List and Define the 4 goals of psychology

1. Description and Behaviors- Naming and classifying various observable, measurable behaviors
2. Understanding- Being able to state the causes of Behavior
3. Prediction- Predicting behavior accurately
4. Control-altering conditions that influence behavior

Define "Critical Thinking"

Ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information, often used in research

what are the 4 key principles of critical thinking

1. Few truths transcend the need for empirical testing
2. evidence varies in quality
3. authority or claimed expertise does not automatically make and idea true
4. critical thinking requires an open mind

Define "pseudo-psychologies"

Pseudo means "false". Any unfounded "System" that resembles psychology and is not based on scientific testing.

Give 4 examples of Pseudo-psychology

Palmistry, Phrenology, Graphology, Astrology

Define "The Barnum Effect"

Tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if stated in general terms.

List 7 steps that help separate fact from fiction

1. Be Skeptical
2. Consider the source of information
3. Ask yourself, "Was there a control group?"
4. Look for errors in distinguishing between correlation and causation
5. Be sure to distinguish between observation and inference
6. Beware of oversimplifications, especially those motivated by monetary gain
7. Example is not proof!

Define "The Scientific Method"

Form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and controlled observation.

List the 6 basic elements of the scientific method

1. Observation
2. Defining a problem
3. Proposing a hypothesis
4. Gathering evidence/testing the hypothesis
5. Publishing results
6. Building a Theory

Define "Hypothesis testing"

Scientifically testing the predicted outcome of an experiment or and educated guess about the relationship between variables

Define "operational definition"

Defines a scientific concept by stating specific actions or procedures used to measure it

Define "Theory"

A system of ideas that interrelates facts and concepts, summarizes existing data, and predicts future observations

Explain the importance of Wihelm Wundt to the world of psychology

he was the "father" of psychology, his ideas were renamed "structuralism", they dealt with the structure of mental life

Explain the importance of William James in the world of psychology

Studied Functionalism, which is how the mind functions to help us adapt and survive, admired Darwin and his theory of natural selection

Define "Educational Psychology"

Study of learning, teaching, classroom dynamics, and related topics

Explain the history of "Behaviorism"

Studied by Watson and Skinner, studied the relationship between stimuli, and responses

Explain the history of "Cognitive Behaviorism"

Studied by Ellis and Bandura, studies how our thoughts influence our behavior

Explain the history of "Gestalt Psychology"

Studied by Wertheimer, and Perls. Studies thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analyzing experiences into parts

Explain the importance of "Freud" in the world of psychology

Studied a Psychoanalytic Perspective, which consits of ideas such as, our behavior is largely influenced by unconscious wishes, thoughts, and desires, especially sex and aggression.

Define "Repression"

When threatening thoughts are unconsciously held out of awareness

Explain and list important names of "Neo-Freudians"

New or recent; some of Freud's students who broke away to promote their own theories.
Key Names: Adler, Anna Freud, Horney, Jung, Rank, Erickson

Explain "Humanism"

Focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals, idea that each person has innate goodness and is able to make free choices
Key Names: Rogers, and Maslow

Define "Self-Image"

Your perception of your own body, personality, and capabilities

Define "Self Evaluation"

Positive and negative feelings you have about yourself

Define "Frame of Reference"

Mental perspective used for interpreting events

Define "Self-Actualization"

Fully developing one's potential and becoming the best person possible

Define "Biopsychology"

All of our behavior can be explained through physiological processes, uses brain scans to gather data.

Define "Positive Psychology"

Study of human strengths, virtues, and optimal behavior

Define "Sociocultural"

Focus on importance of social and cultural contexts influencing our behavior

Define "Cognitive"

Study thoughts, memory, expectations, perceptions, and other mental processes

Explain "Cultural Awareness"

Many thoughts and behaviors are influenced by our culture, Psychologists need to be aware of the impact cultural diversity may have on our behaviors, what is acceptable in one culture might not be on another

Define "Cultural Relativity"

Behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs, associated with cultural awareness

Define "Social Norms"

Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of various groups, associated with cultural awareness

Explain the profession of a "clinical psychologist"

They treat more severe psychological problems or do research on mental disorders

Explain the profession of a "counseling psychologist"

They treat milder problems, such as work or school troubles

Explain the profession of a "psychiatrist"

MD, usually use medications to treat problems, generally do not have extensive training in providing "talk" therapy

Explain the profession of a "psychoanalyst"

They Receive additional training post-PhD or MD t an institute for psychoanalysis

Explain the profession of a "psychiatric social worker"

Mental health professional who applies social science principles to help people in clinics and hospitals.

Explain the profession of a "Counselor"

An adviser who helps solve problems with marriage, school, and so on.

Explain the 3 jobs of conducting an experiment

1. Directly vary a condition you might think affects behavior
2. Create two or more groups of subjects, alike in all ways except the condition you are varying
3. Record whether varying the condition has any effect on behavior.

Define "Variables"

Any Conditions that can change, and might affect an experiment's outcome.

Define "Independent Variable"

Condition(s) altered by the experimenter; experimenter sets their size, amount, or value; these are suspected causes for behavioral differences

Define "Dependent Variable"

Demonstrates effects that independent variables have on behavior.

Define "Extraneous Variables"

Conditions that a researcher wants to prevent from affecting the outcomes of the experiment.

Define "experimental group"

The group of subjects that gets exposed to the independent variable.

Define "control group"

The group of subjects that gets all conditions EXCEPT the independent variable

Define "Random Assignment"

Subject has an equal chance of being in either the experimental or control group.

Define "statistically significant"

Results gained would occur very rarely by chance alone.

Define "Meta-Analysis"

Study of results of other studies

Define and Explain "Placebo"

-A fake pill, or injection
-Placebos alter our expectations about our own emotional and physical reactions

Explain the "Placebo Effect"

Changes in behavior that result from believe that one has ingested a drug.

Define "Single-Blind Experiment"

Only the subjects have no idea whether they get real treatment or placebo

Define "Double-Blind Experiment"

The subjects AND the experimenters have no idea whether the subjects get real treatment or placebo.

Define "Experimenter Effects"

Changes in behavior caused by th unintended influence of the experimenter

Define "Self-fulfilling prophecy"

A prediction that leads people to act in way to make the prediction come true.

Define "Naturalistic Observation"

Observing a person or an animal in the environment in which they/it live(s)

Define "Observer Effect"

Changes in subject's behavior caused by an awareness of being observed

Define "Observer Bias"

Occurs when the observers see what they expect to see or record only selected details.

Define "Anthropomorphic Fallacy"

Attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining their behavior.

Define "Correlational Studies"

Studies designed to measure the degree of a relationship between two or more events, measures, or variables.

Explain "Coefficient of Correlation"

Statistic ranging from -1 to 1; the sign indicates the direction of the relationship, the closer the statistic is to -1 or 1 the stronger the relationship

Define "Positive Correlation"

Increases in one variable are matched by increases in the other variable.

Define "Negative Correlation"

Increases in one variable are matched by decreases in the other variable.

List the 3 types of Clinical Methods

Case study, natural clinical tests, survey method

Define "Case Study"

In-depth focus on all aspects of a single person

Define "Natural Clinical Tests"

Natural events such as accidents that provide psychological data

Define "survey method"

Using public polling techniques to answer psychological questions

List 2 types of sampling

Representative Sample, Internet Surveys

Define "Representative Sample"

Small group that accurately reflects a larger population.

Define "Internet Surveys"

Web-based research, low cost and can reach many people.

Define "Courtesy Bias"

A tendency to give polite or socially desirable answers

List 2 types of Statistics in Psychology

Descriptive statistics, and Inferential statistics

Define "Descriptive Statistics"

Summarize numbers so they become more meaningful and easier to communicate to other people

Define "Inferential Statistics"

Used for making decisions, for generalizing from small samples, and for drawing conclusions.

Define "Graphical Statistics"

Presenting numbers pictorially, usually in a graph, so they are easier to visualize

Define "Frequency Distribution"

A Table that divides an entire range of scores into a series of equal classes and then records the number of scores that fall into each class

Define "Histogram"

A graph of a frequency distribution; scores are represented by vertical bars

Define "Frequency Polygon"

Number of scores in each class is represented by points on a line

List the 3 different Measures of Central Tendency

the Mean, Median, and Mode

Define "Mean"

Add all the scores for each group and then divide the total number of scores

Define "Median"

Arrange scores from highest to lowest and then select the score that falls in the middle.

Define "Mode"

Identifies the most frequently occurring score in a group

List th 2 different Measures of Variability

Range, and Standard Deviation

Define "Range"

Difference between the highest and lowest scores

Define "Standard Deviation"

Index of how much a typical score differs from the mean of a group of scores

Define "Z-Score"

A number that indicates how many standard deviations above or below the mean a score is.

Define "Normal Curve"

Bell-shaped curve, With a large number of scores in the middle and very few extremely high and low scores

Define "Correlation"

Systematic relationship between two variables, measures, or events.

Define "Scatter Diagram"

Simplest way to visualize correlation; graph that plots intersection of paired measures

List 3 Utilization of Correlation

1. Correlations help us identify relationships that are worth knowing
2. Correlations are valuable for making predictions
3. If a correlation exists, the two variables are related

Define "Population"

Entire set of subjects, objects, or events of interest, impossible or impractical to obtain

Define "Samples"

Smaller cross sections of a population.

Define "Statistical Significance"

Degree to which an event is unlikely to have occurred by chance alone

List the parts of the Neuron

Soma, Axon, Axon terminals, and Dendrites

Define "Soma"

Cell body; body of the neuron. receives messages and sends messages down axon

Define "Axon"

A fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron

Define "Axon Terminals"

Branches that link the dendrites and somas of other neurons

Define "Dendrites"

Receive messages from other neurons.

Define "Resting Potential"

Electrical charge of an inactive neuron

Define "Threshold"

Trigger point for a neuron's firing

Define "Action Potential"

Nerve impulse

Define "Ion Channels"

Tiny openings through the axon membrane

Define "negative after-potential"

A drop in electrical charge below the resting potential

Define "Synapse"

Microscopic space between two neurons over which messages pass.

Define "Saltatory Conduction"

Process by which nerve impulses conducted down the axons of neurons coated with myelin jump from gap to gap in the myelin layer

Define "Myelin"

A fatty layer coating some axons

Define "Neurotransmitters"

Chemicals that alter activity in neurons; brain chemicals

Define "Receptor Site"

Area on the surface of neurons and other cells that is sensitive to neurotransmitters or hormones

List and Explain the 3 types of neurotransmitters

1. Acetylcholine- Activates muscles
2. Dopamine- Muscle control
3. Serotonin- Mood and Appetite control

What do Neural Regulators consist of?

Neuropeptides

Define "Neuropeptides"

They regulate activity of other neurons

Define "Enkephalins"

They relieve pain and stress; similar to endorphins

Define "Endorphins"

They are released by pituitary gland; also help to relieve pain

Define "Neuroplasticity"

Capacity of our brains to change in response to experience.

List the 2 Neural Networks

1.Central Nervous system
2. Peripheral nervous system

Define "Central Nervous System"

Brain and spinal cord

Define "Peripheral Nervous system"

All parts of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord

Define "Neurilemma"

Thin layer of cells wrapped around axons outside brain and spinal cord

What are the 2 divisions of the peripheral nervous system?

The somatic system, and the autonomic system

Define "Somatic System"

Carries messages to and from skeletal muscles and sense organs

Define "Autonomic System"

Serves internal organs and glands; controls automatic functions such as heart rate and digestion pressure.

What are the 2 divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System?

Sympathetic, Parasympathetic

Define "Sympathetic"

Part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, emergency system

Define "Parasympathetic"

Part of the autonomic nervous system that quiets the body, most active after an emotional event

List the parts of the spinal cord

Spinal nerves, Cranial Nerves, Reflex Arc, Sensory neuron, Connector neuron, Motor Neuron

Define "Spinal Nerves"

31 of them, carry sensory and motor messages to and from the spinal cord

Define "Cranial Nerves"

12 pairs that leave the brain directly; also work to communicate messages.

Define "Reflex Arc"

Simplest behavior; occurs when stimulus provokes an automatic response

Define "Sensory Neuron"

Nerve cell that carries messages from the senses towards the CNS

Define "Connector Neuron"

Nerve cell that links two others

Define "Motor Neuron"

A cell that carries commands from the CNS to muscles and glands

Define "Effector Cells"

Cells capable of producing a response

Define "Neurogenesis"

The production of new brain cells.

List the 4 brain imaging techniques

Computed Tomographic Scanning,Magnetic resonance imaging, Functional MRI, and positron emission tomography

Define "Localization of Function"

Research strategy of linking specific structures in the brain with specific psychological or behavioral functions.

Define "Ablation"

Surgical removal of parts of the brain

Define "Deep Lesioning"

A thin wire electrode is lowered into a specific area inside the brain

Define "Electrical stimulation of the brain"

ESB, when an electrode is used to activate target areas in the brain

Define "Electroencephalograph"

A device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain.

Define "Cerebral Cortex"

Outer layer of the brain; contains 70% of neurons in CNS

What does the Cerebral Cortex Contain?

The Cerebrum, Corticalization, and cerebral hemispheres

Define "Cerebrum"

Two large hemispheres that cover upper part of the brain

Define "Corticalization"

Increase in size and wrinkling of the cortex

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