Published his famous book On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, in May of 1543. From Poland, he was a mathematician who disagreed with the geocentric system. He believed that his heliocentric conception was a much more accurate explanation of the universe. He argued that the Sun, not Earth, was at the center of the universe. Planets revolved around the sun; however the Moon, revolved around the Earth. According to Copernicus, the apparent movement of the Sun around Earth was actually caused by the daily rotation of the Earth on its axis, and the journey of Earth around the sun each year.
the first European to make regular observations of the heavens using a telescope. With a telescope, he was able to discover: mountains on the Moon, four moons revolving around Jupiter, and sunspots. His observations destroyed the Ptolemaic system, as he proved that heavenly bodies were composed of material substance, NOT as pure orbs of light. Published his discoveries in The Starry Messenger in 1610. This book was aimed to make Europeans aware of the new view of the universe.
Seventeenth-century French philosopher. In his most famous work, Discourse on Method(1637), Descartes taught about the importance of one's own mind, and to only accept things that his reason said were true. Became known as the father of modern rationalism.
Responisble new view of human anatomy of the sixteenth century. 1543 Book On the Fabric of the Human Body, discussed what he had found when dissecting human bodies. Careful and accurate examination of the individual organs, structure of the human body. "Hands on" approach enabled him.
*Invented the universal joint, the iris diaphragm, and an early prototype of the respirator.
*Credited for other inventions such as: the anchor escapement and the balance spring, which made more accurate clocks possible; worked out the correct theory of combustion; devised an equation describing elasticity that is still used today ("Hooke's Law").
*Also innovated meteorological instruments such as the barometer, anemometer, and the hygrometer.
Hooke devised the compound microscope with an illumination system, one of the best such microscopes of his time.
*Perhaps most importantly, he discovered plant cells -- more precisely, what Hooke saw were the cell walls in cork tissue.
*Hooke actually created the term "cells": the boxlike cells of cork reminded him of the cells of a monastery.
A Frenchman; known for most famous work, The Spirit of the Laws(1748). This work was study of governments, he utilized the scientific method to find the natural laws that govern the social and political relationships of human beings. Identified three types of governments: Republics(small state oriented); Despotism(appropriate for large states); and Monarchies(ideal for the moderately sized). England, a monarchy, had three identifiable branches: The executive, legislative, and judicial. Their particular government functioned through a separation of powers. His idea of separation of powers became influential to the United States Constitution.
Author of the Encyclopedia, or Classified dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades, a 28 volume collection of knowledge. His goal was to, "change the general way of thinking." Many of the articles attacked religious superstition, and advocate for religious tolerance. Other articles from his work called the need for social, legal, and political improvements to lead a humane, tolerant society.
English writer, seen as the founder of the modern European and American movement for women's rights. Author of Vindication of the Rights of Women, pointing out two faults of Enlightenment thinkers. She stated that the people who argued women must obey men, also said that government based on the power of monarchs over their subjects was wrong. Also, the power of men over women was also equally wrong. Because women have reason, they are entitled to the same rights as men.
French for "philosopher"; applied to all intellectuals (writers, journalists, economists, SOCIAL REFORMERS) during the Enlightenment.
An eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law.
• Inspired by Newton's "clockmaker" analogy
• Belief that god created universe and does not intervene in human affairs
• Revealed in nature
• No need for "faith"; no miracles, "holy books"
the medieval forerunner of chemistry, based on the supposed transformation of matter. It was concerned particularly with attempts to convert base metals into gold
rights humans had that they were "born with". These included rights were- life, liberty, and property.
The English Civil War—Why? Results?
In 1649, a civil war broke out over who would rule England—Parliament or King Charles I. The war ended with the beheading of the king.
The Enlightenment was philosophical movement inspired by the accomplishments of the Scientific Revolution
• Participants believed in the importance of reason, natural law, progress, toleration & happiness
• Reaction against Absolute Monarchy, Catholic Church
• Ideas will inspire future revolutions
The Englishman who tied together the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. Attended Cambridge University; and later became a professor of mathematics at the university, and wrote his major work, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. The work is known as the Principia. In the first book of the Principia, Newton defined the three laws of motion that govern the planetary bodies, as well as objects on Earth. His argument was set by the universal law of gravitation. Newton set forth his gravitational law, mathematically proved; and he had shown that this could explain all motion in the universe. He has been considered as the the greatest genius of the Scientific Revolution.
Developed the Scientific Method. An English philosopher with few scientific credentials, believed that instead of relying on the ideas of ancient authorities, scientists should use inductive reasoning to learn about nature. Scientists should proceed from the particular to the general. Systematic observations an carefully organized experiments to test hypotheses would lead to correct general principles.
Showed that the heart, not the liver, was the beginnning point for the circulation of blood in the body. Proved that the same blood flows in both veins and arteries. Most importantly, he showed that blood makes a complete circuit as it passes through the body.
A chemist; one of the first scientists to conduct controlled experiments. Pioneered work on the properties of gases; set forth by Boyle's Law. This generalization states that the volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted on it.
eighteenth century, invented a system of naming the chemical elements. (still used today) Regarded as founder of modern chemistry.
Seventeenth century Englishman who was regarded to be one of the most influential figure to the Enlightenment. His Essay Concerning Human Understanding, argued that every person was born with a 'tabula rasa'(blank mind). He believed that people were molded by the experiences that came through their senses from the surrounding world.
Viewed as the greatest figure of the Enlightenment. From Paris. Known for his criticism of Christianity, and belief in religious tolerance. Treatise on Toleration(1763) was written to tell governments that all men are equal-"all men are brothers under God." Contributed Deism.
Author of Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind. He argued that people had adopted laws and gov't in order to preserve their private property. He believed that the people became enslaved by their government. Wrote The Social Contract(1762), and presented the concept of social contract. Direct democracy. Believed all people were=
On Crime and
• Reform prison system
• No torture, capital punishment
• Punishment should fit the crime
• Prison reform
The elegant drawing rooms of great urban houses where, in the eighteenth century, writers, artists, aristocrats, government officials, and wealthy middle class people gathered to discuss the ideas of the philosophes, helping to spread the ideas of the Enlightenment.
From Scotland, provided the best statement of laissez-faire in his work The Wealth of Nations. He believed that the government should stay out of economic matters. In his opinion, he thought that the government had three roles: protecting society from invasion; defending citizens from injustice, and maintaining public works(roads, canals, etc.)
A systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence hat was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world.
The Glorious Revolution—Why? Results?
(1688)—results in limited monarchy & English Bill of Rights