Appedix I: Body Systems: Digestive System

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Medical Terminology: A Short Course. 5th Edition. By David-Ellen Chabner. Digestive System.

append/o

appendix

appendic/o

appendix

cholangi/o

bile ducts

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

choledoch/o

bile duct

col/o

colon

colon/o

colon

duoden/o

duedenum. (1st part of small intestine).

esophag/o

esophagus

gastr/o

stomach

hepat/o

liver

ile/o

ileum. (3rd part of small intestine).

jejun/o

jejunum. (2nd part of small intestine).

or/o

mouth

pancreat/o

pancreas

pharyng/o

pharynx

proct/o

anus and rectum

rect/o

rectum

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon. ("s" lower part of large intestine or colon).

stomat/o

mouth

Cholelithiasis:

Abnormal condition of gallstones.

Cirrhosis:

Chronci disease of the liver with degeneration of liver cells.

Colonic Polyposis:

Condition in which polyps protrude from the mucous membrane lining the colon.

Diverticulosis:

Abnormal condition of small pouches or sacs (diverticula) in the wall of the intestine (often the colon). Diverticulitis is an inflammation and infection within diverticula.

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD):

A condition in which contents of the stomach flow back into the esophagus.

Hepatitis:

Inflammation of the liver.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD):

Inflammation of the terminal (last) portion of the ileum (Crohn disease) or inflammation of the colon (ulcerative colitis).

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS):

Signs and symptoms are crampingq abdominal bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. Although IBS causes distressing symptoms, it does not permanently harm the intestine.

Hepatocellular carcinoma:

Cancer (promary) of the liver.

Jaundice:

Yellow-orange coloration of the skin and other tissues, from high levels of bilirubin in the bloodstream (hyperbilirubinemia).

Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan:

A series of cross-sectional x-ray images that show abdominal organs.

Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):

Magnetic and radio waves create images of abdominal organs and tissues in all three planes of the body.

Abdominal ultrasonography:

Process of beaming sound waves into the abdomen to produce images of organs such as the gallbladder. Endoscopic ultrasonography is useful to detect enlarged lymph nodes and tumors in the upper abdomen.

Barium tests:

X-ray examinations using a liquid barium mixture to locate disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. In a barium enema (lower GI series), barium is injected into the anus and rectum and x-ray images are taken of the colon. In an upper GI series (barium swallow), barium is taken in through the mouth and x-ray images reveal the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine.

Cholangiography:

X-ray examination of the bile ducts after the injection of contrast material through the liver (percutaneous transhepatic cholangiopraphy) or through a catheter from the mouth, esophagus, and stomach into the bile ducts (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or ERCP).

Gastrointestinal endoscopy:

Visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract with an endoscope. Examples are esophagoscopy, gastroscopy, and sigmoidoscopy.

Hemoccult test:

Feces are placed on paper containing the chemical guaiac, which reacts with hidden (occult) blood. This is an important screening test for colon cancer.

Liver function test (LFTs):

Measurements of liver enzymes and other substances in the blood. Enzyme levels increase when the liver is damaged (as in hepatitis). Examples of liver enzymes are ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase (alk phos). High bilirubin, (blood pigment), indicate jaundice caused by liver disease or other problems affecting the liver.

Stool culture:

Feces (stools) are placed in a growth medium (culture) to test for microorganisms.

Virtual colonoscopy:

CT scans, MRI, and computers are used to produce two- and three-dimensional images of the colon. It is useful to diagnose colon disease.

Anastomosis:

Surgical creation of an opening between two gastrointestinal organs. Examples are gastrojejunostomy, cholecystojejunostomy, and choledochoduodenostomy.

Colostomy:

Surgical creation of a new opening of the colon to the outside of the bodyi.

Ileostomy:

Surgical creation of a new opening of the ileum to the outside of the body.

Laparoscopic surgery:

Removal of organs or tissues via a laparoscope (instrument inserted into the abdomen through a small incision). Examples are laparoscopic cholecystectomy and laparoscopic appendectomy. A form of minimally invasive surgery.

ALT, AST

Alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase (liver enzymes measured as part of LFTs)

BE

Barium enema (barium, a contrast agent, is introduced through the rectum, and x-ray pictures of the colon are taken)

GB

Gallbladder

GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

GI

gastrointestinal

IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis)

IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome

LFT

Liver function tests (ALT, AST, bilirubin)

NPO

Nothing by mouth, (nil per os)

TPN

Total parenteral nutrition (intravenous solutions are given to maintain nutrition).

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