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Overcorrection

One technique that has proven especially effective in reducing self-stimulation and repetitive movements in autistic or severely retarded children is:

Response cost

In math class, Mary talked out without raising her hand. Her teacher gave her a warning and asked her to state the rule for being recognized to speak. However, Mary was soon talking out again and lost a point from her daily point sheet. This is an example of:

Direct eye contact

Which body language would not likely be interpreted as a sign of defensiveness, aggression, or hostility?

One

The minimum number of IEP meetings required per year is:

The student is being educated with the fewest special education services necessary.

Satisfaction of the LRE requirement means that:

At least once every 3 years.

A review of a student's eligibility for an exceptional student program must be done:

Safety and well-being of the staff and students.

Crisis intervention methods are above all concerned with:

Notify the crisis teacher and arrange to have someone monitor Ricky.

Ricky, a third grade student, runs out of the classroom and onto the roof of the school. He paces around the roof, looks around to see who is watching, and laughs at the people on the ground. He appears to be in control of his behavior. What should the teacher do?

Positive Practice

Mike was caught marking graffiti on the walls of the bathroom. His consequence was to clean all the walls of the bathroom. This type of overcorrection would be:

Fading

Judy, a fourth grader, is often looking around the room or out of the window. She does not disturb anyone, but has to ask for directions to be repeated and does not finish her work. Her teacher decides to reinforce Judy when she is on task. This would be an example of which method of reinforcement?

No more than one-half hour.

An appropriate time out for a ten-year-old would be:

Extinction

During the science lesson Rudy makes remarks from time to time but his classmates are not attending to them. The teacher reinforces the students who are raising their hand to speak, but ignores Rudy. The teacher reinforces Rudy when he raises his hand. This technique is an example of:

Maladaptive behavior stops, then starts up again for a brief time.

Which of these would probably not be a result of implementing an extinction strategy?

Extinction

Withholding or removing a stimulus that reinforces a maladaptive behavior is:

Overcorrection

Which of these would not be used to strengthen a desired behavior?

After every third correct response in a row.

If the arrangement in a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is 3, when will the student receive the reinforcer?

Shaping

Wesley is having trouble ignoring distractions. At first you have him seated at a carrel which is located in a corner of the room. He does well so, you eventually move him out of the carrel for increasing portions of the day. Eventually he is able to sit in a seat with the rest of his classmates. This is an example of:

Continuous

Laura is beginning to raise her hand first instead of talking out. An effective schedule of reinforcement would be:

Fixed

As Laura continues to raise her hand to speak, the teacher would want to change this schedule of reinforcement in order to wean her from reinforcement:

Variable

Laura has demonstrated that she has mastered the goal of raising her hand to speak, reinforcement during the maintenance phase should be:

Are natural and logical.

An integral part of ecological interventions are consequences that:

Hitting

Examples of behaviors that are appropriate to be measured for their duration, include all EXCEPT:

Daydreaming

Examples of behaviors that are appropriate to be monitored by measuring frequency include all EXCEPT:

Last a long time.

Criteria for choosing behaviors to measure by frequency include all but those that:

Last a short time.

Criteria for choosing behaviors to measure by duration include all but those that:

Interval or time sample.

Data on quiet behaviors (e.g. nail biting or daydreaming) are best measured using a:

Reciprocal behaviors

Mr. Jones wants to design an intervention for reducing Jason's sarcastic remarks. He wants to find out who or what is reinforcing Jason's remarks, so he records data on Jason's behavior of his peers. This is an example of collecting data on:

Single behaviors for multiple subjects.

Ms. Beekman has a class of students who frequently talk out. She wishes to begin interventions with the students who are talking out the most. She monitors the talking behavior of the entire class for 1 minute samples every half hour. This is an example of collecting data on:

External locus of control.

Mark got a B on his social studies test. Mr. Wilner praised him for his good grade but he replies, "I was lucky this time. It must have been an easy test." Mark's statement is an example of:

Telephone the school and let the crisis teacher notify the police in accordance with school policy.

Mr. Smith is on a field trip with a group of high school EH students. One the way they stop at a fast food restaurant for lunch, and Warren and Raul get into a disagreement. After some heated words, Warren stalks out of the restaurant and refuses to return to the group. He leaves the parking lot, continues walking away from the group, and ignores Mr. Smith's directions to come back. What would be the best course of action for Mr. Smith?

Food

Which is the least effective of reinforcers in programs for mildly to moderately handicapped learners?

Negative practice

Tyrone likes to throw paper towards the trash can instead of getting up to throw it away. After several attempts of positive interventions, Tyrone has to serve a detention and continues to throw balls of paper at the trash can for the entire detention period. This would be an example of:

If the student has the essential prerequisite skills to perform the goal.

A student may have great difficulty in meeting a target goal if the teacher has not first considered:

Contingency contracting

The Premack principle of increasing the performance of a less-preferred activity by immediately following it with a highly-preferred activity is the basis of:

The intervention had not previously been shown to be effective in studies.

Mr. Brown finds that his chosen consequence does not seem to be having the desired effect of reducing the target misbehavior. Which of these would LEAST LIKELY account for Mr. Brown's lack of success with the consequence?

Having students copy computation facts for a set number of times.

Teaching techniques that stimulate active participation and understanding in the mathematics class include all but which of the following?

Fixed-interval

Justin, a second grader, is reinforced if he is on task at the end of each 10 minute block of time that the teacher observes him. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?

Harm might come to the student or others.

Addressing a student's maladaptive behavior right away with a "time out" should be reserved for situations where:

Fixed interval

At the beginning of the school year, Annette had a problem with being late to class. Her teacher reinforced her each time she was in her seat when the bell rang. In October, her teacher decided to reward her every other day when she was not tardy to class. The reinforcement schedule appropriate for making the transition to maintenance phase would be:

Variable ratio

By November, Annette's teacher is satisfied with her record of being on time and decides to change the schedule of reinforcement. The best type of reinforcement schedule for maintenance of behavior is:

Specific learning disabilities

Which of these groups is not comprehensively covered by IDEA?

Prewriting

Organizing ideas by use of a web or outline is an example of which writing activity.

Society's standards of behavior.

When a teacher is choosing behaviors to modify, the issue of social validity must be considered. Social validity refers to:

Chaining

Dena, a second grader, is a messy eater who leaves her lunch are messy as well. Dena's teacher models correct use of eating utensils and napkins for her. As Dena approximates the target behavior of eating neatly and leaving her area clean, she receives praise and a token. Finally, Dena reaches her target behavior goal and redeems her tokens. Dena's teacher used the strategy of:

Full Inclusion Model

Educators who advocate educating all children in their neighborhood classrooms and schools, propose the end of labeling and segregation of special needs student in special classes, and call for the delivery of special supports and services directly in the classroom may be said to support the:

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