AP Biology Plant Questions From Chapters 29-30, 35-39

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Which of the following plant groups is incorrectly paired with its gametophyte generation

Fern-frond growing from rhizome

Which of the following is most likely the closest relative of the vascular plants

Bryophytes

Which of the following functions may secondary compounds serve

All of the above

Which of the following has been proposed by plant biologists as the deepest branch that establishes the boundary of the plant kingdom

The kingdoms Plantae, Streptophyta, and Viridiplantae

If you could take a time machine back to the Carboniferous period, which of the following scenarios would you most likely encounter

Swampy forests dominated by seedless vascular plants (ferns)

In which of the following groups do sperm no longer have to swim to reach the female gametophyte

Gymnosperms and angiosperms

What provides food for a developing sporophyte embryo in a gymnosperm seed

Female gametophyte tissue

Which of the following is the correct path that a pollen tube takes to reach the female gametophyte in an angiosperm

Stigma, style, ovary, ovule, embryo sac

How many generations are represented in a pine seed

3: seed coat from parent sporophyte, food supply from gametophyte, and sporophyte embryo

Gymnosperms rose to dominance during which of the following periods

Permian

If the angiosperm gametophyte generation has been reduced to so few cells, why hasn't it been eliminated from the life cycle

The gametophyte generation produces both the protective seed coat and nourishment for developing embryo

Which of the following is a key difference between seedless vascular plants and plants with seeds

The spore is the agent of dispersal in the first, whereas the seed functions in dispersal in the second.

Where would you find a microsporangium in the life cycle of a pine

At the base of the sporophyll in a pollen cone.

Which of these plants is believed to be the only survivor of the oldest branch of the angiosperm lineage

The small shrub Amborella

The male gametophyte in _______ is contained within a pollen grain

angiosperms

Which of the following is incorrectly paired w/ its function

Procambium--meristematic tissue

which of the following is incorrectly paired with its type of life cycle

wheat--biennial

which of the following cells are dead at functional maturity

all of the above

in what direction does a plant cell enlarge

perpendicular to the orientation to cellulose

what do organ identity genes code for

transcription factors

What is a usual sign of the change of the apical meristem from the juvenile to the mature phase

a change in the morphology of leaves

which of the following is essential to establishing the axial polarity of a plant

the assymetric 1st division of a zygote

supporting cells with thickened secondary walls

schlerenchyma

supporting cells with thickened primary walls

collenchyma

tapered xylem cells with lignin in cell walls

tracheids

bundles of long-schlerenchyma cells

fibers

cambium cells that produce secondary xylem and phloem

fusiform initials

layer from which lateral roots originate

pericycle

parenchyma cells with chloroplasts in leaves

mesophyll

protective coat made of cork and cork cambium

periderm

cell layer in root regulating movement into stele

endodermis

parenchyma cells inside vascular ring in dicot stem

pith

Adaptations for terrestrial life seen in all plants are

Sporopollenin

Plants are thought to be most closely related to charophyceans based on

All of the above

Megaphylls

Are leaves with branching vascular systems

4. Bryophyes differ from other land plant groups because

gametophyte generation is dominant

Which of the following plant groups is incorrectly paired with its gametophyte generation?

Fern-frond growing from rhizome

The evolution of sporopollenin was important to the movement of plants onto land because it

Provided a tough coating for spores

If a plant's life cycle includes both a male and female gametophyte, the sporophyte plant must be

Heterosporous

Xylem and Phloem are found in

Vascular plants

Alternation of generations may have evolved in land plants when

Zygote underwent mitotic divisions

Large stores of organic carbon that help to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are found in

Peat

Protacheophyte polysporangiophytes are

Silurian fossils

How many generations are represented in a pine seed? 3

seed coat from parent sporophyte, food supply from gametophyte, and sporophyte embryo

An example of co-evolution is

A flower with nectar guides that direct bees to its nectaries

Which of the following is incorrect? Monocots typically have

A taproot

Axillary buds

Form at nodes

A leaf trace is

A branch from a vascular bundle that extends into a leaf

ground meristem

produces the ground tissue system

the zone of cell elongation

is responsible for pushing a root through the soil

secondary xylem and phloem are produced in a root by the

vascular cambium

bark consists of

all of the above

sieve-tube members

are transport cells

clonal analysis of cells of the shoot apex indicates that

a cell's developmental fate is more influenced by position effects

The most recent common ancestor of all land plants was most similar to modern-day members of which group?

c. Charophycea

Peptidoglycan is to the structural integrity of bacteria as ____ is to the structural integrity of plant spores.

e. sporopollenin

Which kind of plant tissue should lack phragmoplasts?

d. tissues performing nuclear division without intervening cytokineses

The following are common to both charophyceans and land plants except

b. lignin.

A number of characteristics are very similar between charophyceans and members of the kingdom Plantae. Of the following, which characteristic does not provide evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between these two groups?

a. alternation of generations

A researcher wants to develop an assay (test) that will distinguish charophyceans and land plants from chlorophyte green algae. Which of the following chemicals would be the best subject for such an assay?

d. glycolate oxidase-an enzyme of peroxisomes that is associated with photorespiration

In animal cells and in the meristem cells of land plants, the nuclear envelope disintegrates during mitosis. This disintegration does not occur in the cells of most protists and fungi. According to our current knowledge of plant evolution, which group of organisms should feature a mitosis most similar to that of land plants?

c. charophyceans

On a field trip, a student in a marine biology class collects an organism that has differentiated organs, cell walls of cellulose, and chloroplasts with chlorophyll a. Based on this description, the organism could be a brown alga, a red alga, a green alga, a charophycean recently washed into the ocean from a freshwater or brackish water source, or a land plant washed into the ocean. Which of the following features would definitively identify this organism as a land plant?

e. presence of embryos

Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. All land plants exhibit alternation of generations. No charophyceans exhibit alternation of generations. Keeping in mind the recent evidence from molecular systematics, the correct interpretation of these observations is that

b. plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae.

Bryophytes have all of the following characteristics except

c. lignified vascular tissue.

Which putative taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"?

b. Plantae

protection from predators

B. tracheids and phloem

protection from desiccation

C. secondary compounds

transport of water, minerals, and nutrients

A. nonflagellated sperm

Which of the following was not a challenge for survival of the first land plants?

d. animal predation

The following are all adaptations to life on land except

a. rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes.

Mitotic activity by the apical meristem of a root makes all of the following more possible except

a. increased length of the above-ground stem.

Which of the following is not a secondary compound of embryophytes?

b. alkaloids

Which event during the evolution of land plants probably made the synthesis of secondary compounds most beneficial?

d. the rise of herbivory

If one were attempting to catalog the largest amount of genetic diversity among plant-like organisms, then which group of organisms should one choose?

b. Viridiplantae

Which of these should have had gene sequences most similar to the charophycean that was the common ancestor of the land plants?

b. early bryophytes

Plant spores give rise directly to

a. sporophytes.

Which of the following statements is true of archegonia?

b. They may temporarily contain sporophyte embryos.

Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction?

b. Both male and female bryophytes produce gametangia.

Assuming that they all belong to the same plant, arrange the following structures from smallest to largest.

d. 3, 4, 1, 2

The leaflike appendages of moss gametophytes may be one- to two-cell-layers thick. Consequently, which of these is least likely to be found associated with such appendages?

c. stomata

Each of the following is a general characteristic of bryophytes except

b. vascular tissue.

The following are all true about the life cycle of mosses except

e. gametophytes germinate from spores.

Beginning with the germination of a moss spore, what is the sequence of structures that develop after germination?

c. 4, 5, 2, 1, 3

Bryophytes may feature all of the following at some time during their existence except

a. microphylls.

A fungal infection damages all calyptra, preventing them from performing their function. Which process will be directly hindered as a result?

e. broadcast of spores

Two, small, poorly drained lakes lie close to each other in a northern forest. The basins of both lakes are composed of the same geologic substratum. One lake is surrounded by a dense Sphagnum mat; the other is not. Compared with the pond without Sphagnum, the pond surrounded by the moss should have

a. a lower pH.

If you are looking for structures that transfer water and nutrients from a bryophyte gametophyte to a bryophyte sporophyte, then on which part of the sporophyte should you focus your efforts?

c. foot

Bryophytes never formed forests (mats maybe, but not forests) because

c. they lack lignified vascular tissue.

In which of the following does the sporophyte depend on the gametophyte for nutrition?

b. moss

Of the following list, flagellated (swimming) sperm are generally present in which groups?

b. 1, 2, 4, 5

The following characteristics all helped seedless plants become better-adapted to land except

a. a dominant gametophyte.

A botanist discovers a new species of plant in a tropical rain forest. After observing its anatomy and life cycle, the following characteristics are noted: flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and sporophyte generations, and no seeds. This plant is probably most closely related to

c. ferns.

A major change that occurred during the evolution of plants from their algal ancestors was the origin of a branched sporophyte. What advantage would branched sporophytes provide in this stage of the life cycle?

b. increased spore production

Sporophylls can be found in which of the following?

d. pterophytes

Which of the following types of plants would not have been present in the forests that became coal deposits?

c. pine trees

If a fern gametophyte is a hermaphrodite (that is, has both male and female gametangia on the same plant), then it

a. belongs to a species that is homosporous.

This student has probably found a(n)

e. club moss sporophyte.

Besides oil, what other chemical should be detected in substantial amounts upon chemical analysis of these small spheres?

a. sporopollenins

Closer observation reveals that these small spheres are produced on tiny extensions of the stem, each of which helps compose the pinecone-like structure. Research would reveal that the cone-like structures are called ____, whereas the small, spore-producing extensions of the stem are called ____.

c. strobili; sporophylls

A dissection of the interior of the stem should reveal

a. lignified vascular tissues.

Assuming that they all belong to the same plant, arrange the following structures from largest to smallest (or from most inclusive to least inclusive).

e. 3, 2, 4, 1

If one were building a large, log structure during the Carboniferous period, which plant type(s) would be suitable sources of logs?

d. horsetails and lycophytes

Which of the following is true of seedless vascular plants?

b. Whole forests were once dominated by large, seedless vascular plants.

Working from deep geologic strata toward shallow geologic strata, what is the sequence in which fossils of these groups should make their first appearance?

c. 2, 1, 3, 4

The sporophytes of mosses depend on the gametophytes for water and nutrition. In seed plants, the reverse is true. From which seed plant sporophyte structure(s) do the immature (unfertilized) gametophytes directly gain water and nutrition?

c. sporangia

Which of the following is an ongoing trend in the evolution of land plants?

b. reduction of the gametophyte phase of the life cycle

All of the following cellular structures are found in cells of angiosperm and gymnosperm gametophytes except

d. chloroplasts.

Plants with a dominant sporophyte are successful on land partly because

d. their gametophytes are protected by, and obtain nutrition from, the sporophytes.

Seeds commonly provide for each of the following except

e. desiccation resistance.

In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics are unique to the seed-producing plants?

c. pollen

Which of the following most closely represents the male gametophyte of seed-bearing plants?

c. pollen grain

Suppose that the cells of seed plants, like the skin cells of humans, produce a pigment upon increased exposure to UV radiation. Rank the cells below, from greatest to least, in terms of the likelihood of producing this pigment.

c. 3, 1, 4, 2

Which number represents the mature gametophyte?

d. 7

Which number represents an embryo?

e. 11

Meiosis is most likely to be represented by which number(s)?

b. 4

Which number represents a megaspore mother cell?

b. 3

Which numbers represent haploid cells or tissues?

e. 5, 7, and 9

The process labeled "6" involves

b. mitosis.

The embryo sac of an angiosperm flower is best represented by which number?

c. 7

In angiosperms, which number represents the event that initiates the formation of endosperm?

d. 10

In seed plants, which structure or material is considered part of a pollen grain?

c. sporopollenin

In terms of alternation of generations, the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most similar to a

e. fern gametophyte that will bear only antheridia.

Which of these is most important in making the typical seed more resistant to adverse conditions than the typical spore?

c. integument(s)

Gymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant ferns because they

c. have pollen.

The main way that pine trees disperse their offspring is by using

d. windblown seeds.

Generally, wind pollination is most likely to be found in seed plants that grow

b. in dense, single-species stands.

Which of the following statements does not describe a portion of the pine life cycle?

a. Female gametophytes use meiosis to produce eggs.

Which of the following statement is not generally true of the pine life cycle?

d. Pollen grains are very different from pine male gametophytes.

Within a gymnosperm megasporangium, what is the correct sequence in which the following should appear during development, assuming that fertilization occurs?

b. 4, 2, 3, 1

Arrange the following structures, which can be found on male pine trees, from the largest structure to the smallest structure (or from most inclusive to least inclusive).

a. 1, 4, 3, 2, 5

Before pollination occurs, what does an individual flower potentially have that an individual pine cone does not have?

d. structures for dispersing seed or pollen grains

Which trait(s) is (are) shared by modern gymnosperms and angiosperms?

c. 1, 2, and 3

Which structure is common to both gymnosperms and angiosperms?

c. ovule

A botanist discovers a new species of land plant with a dominant sporophyte, chlorophylls a and b, and a cell wall made of cellulose. In assigning this plant to a phylum, all of the following would provide useful information except whether or not the plant has

e. spores.

What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, and pine cone scales?

c. They are modified leaves.

Reptilian embryos are protected from desiccation by a leathery shell. Similarly, sporophytes of both gymnosperms and angiosperms protect embryos within ____, and they also protect male gametophytes against desiccation using ____.
a. ovules; waxy cuticle

e. integuments; sporopollenin

scale of ovulate (ovule-bearing) pine cone

D. female sporophyte

integument of pine nut

D. female sporophyte

egg cell in the embryo sac

B. female gametophyte

fruit

D. female sporophyte

pollen tube

A. male gametophyte

All of the following are sporophyte structures except

b. pollen tubes.

Which of the following statements is not true of monocots?

c. They, along with the eudicots and basal angiosperms, are currently placed in the phylum Anthophyta.

Carpels and stamens are

e. modified sporophylls.

How have fruits contributed to the success of angiosperms?

b. by facilitating dispersal of seeds

In flowering plants, meiosis occurs specifically in the

a. spore mother cells.

Arrange the following structures from largest to smallest, assuming that they belong to two generations of the same angiosperm.

e. 4, 1, 2, 5, 3

Which structure(s) must pass through the micropyle for successful fertilization to occur in angiosperms?

e. both B and C

How many chromosomes should be in a tube cell nucleus?

B. 8

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