US Secretary of State offered Europe economic aid to help it rebuild. Stalin refused the aid for all of Eastern Europe. Hundreds of planes began delivering supplies to West Berlin despite the soviet blockade.
Christian Democratic parties
They were inspired and united by a common Christian Europe and rejected authoritarianism and narrow nationalism and placed their faith in democracy and cooperation. In France, Italy, FRG,
Chancellor of FRG in 1949; the former mayor of Cologne and a long-time anti-Nazi, who began his long highly successful democratic rule. Lead the FRG majority of Christian Democrats. He helped regain respect for Germany.
Charles de Gaulle
Christian Democrat, General of the Free French, resigned in '46 after having re-established the free and democratic Fourth Republic. He was later ruled as president from 1958-69 in the colonial war in Algeria. He was at heart, a romantic nationalist and viewed the USA as the main threat to French independence.
Under the guidance of Jean Monnet, an economic pragmatist and apostle of European unity, a planning commission set ambitious but flexible goals for the French economy and used the nationalized banks to funnel money into key industries. Thus France combined ﬂexible planning and a "mixed" state and private economy to achieve the most rapid economic development in its long history. This caused pople to work hard for low wages in the hope of a better future.
Jean Monnet & Robert Schuman
Two far-seeing French statesmen,
the planner and Foreign Minister, took the lead in 1950 and called for a special international organization to control and integrate all European steel and coal production.
Organization of European Economic Cooperation: The close cooperation among European states required by the Americans for Marshall Plan aid led to the creation of this group.
European Coal and Steal Community. Eliminated coal and steel tariffs.
Common Market (AKA European Economic Community):
In 1957 the six nations of the Coal and Steel Community signed the Treaty of Rome, which created this group. The ﬁrst goal of the treaty was a gradual reduction of all tariffs among the six in order to create a single market almost as large as that of the United States. Other goals included the free movement of capital and labor and common economic policies and institutions. The Common Market was a great success, encouraging companies and regions to specialize in what they did best until the 1960s when these hopes of rapid progress toward political and economic union was frustrated by a resurgence of traditional nationalism.
Only this man, the resistance leader and Communist chief of Yugoslavia, was able to resist Soviet domination successfully. He stood up to Stalin in 1948, and since there was no Russian army in Yugoslavia, he got away with it.Yugoslavia prospered as a multiethnicstate until it began to break apart in the 1980s. His proclamation of independence infuriated Stalin.
The liberalization—or de-Stalinization,as it was called
in the West—of the Soviet Union was genuine. The
Communist Party jealously maintained its monopoly on
political power, but this man shook up the party and
brought in new members.
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
Shortly after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, Brezhnev declared this doctrine, according to which the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
Educated in Moscow, he was a dedicated Communist. But he and his allies believed that they could reconcile genuine socialism with personal freedom and internal party democracy.
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
1970s: now the USSR dictatorship was collective rather than personal, and coercion replaced terror. This compromise seemed to suit the leaders and a majority of the people and was quite popular.
Pope John Paul II (Karol Wojtyla)
Then the real Polish miracle occurred: this Cardinal, archbishop of Cracow, was elected pope in 1978. In June 1979, he returned from Rome, preaching love of Christ and country and the "inalienable rights of man." He drew enormous crowds and electriﬁed the Polish nation showing his support of the working class. The economic crisis became a moral and spiritual crisis as well.
August 1980, the sixteen thousand workers at the Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk laid down their tools and occupied the plant. As other workers joined "in solidarity," the strikers advanced revolutionary demands: the right to form free-trade unions, freedom of speech, release of political prisoners, and economic reforms. After eighteen days of shipyard occupation, the government gave in and accepted the workers' demands. In a state where the Communist Party claimed to rule on behalf of the proletariat, a working-class revolt had won an unprecedented victory.
This devout Catholic lead the worker's free trade union, solidarity, and was joined by intellectuals and supported by the Catholic Church.
The Velvet Revolution
University of Paris vs. Pres. de Gaulle
neoliberalism, globalisation & their critics
the expanded European Union
Isreal's founding & Arab nationalism
"the baby bust"
Lead by Lech Walesa in Poland, by Mar '81 a full staff of 40,000 linked 9.5 mil union members together as it published its own newspapers. Culutal and intellectual freedom blossomed in Poland. Its leaders had tremendous support and the ever-present threat of calling a nationwide strike gave them real power in ongoing negotiations with Communist bosses. However this was a "self-limiting revolution" due to the Brezhnev Doctrine. Criticism of Walesa's moderate
leadership grew, and this movement lost its cohesiveness.
To accomplish this (economic "restucturing"), Gorbachev permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the setting up of profit-seeking private cooperations to provide personal services for consumers. However shortages eventually grew as teh economy stalled between central planning and free-market mechanisms causing widespread consumer dissatisfaction by late '88.
"openness" of the government and media quickly approached something like free speech and free expression, a veritable cultural revolution.
great democracy in government (Democratization)
This policy lead to the ﬁrst free elections in the Soviet Union since 1917. Gorbachev and the party remained in control, but a minority of critical independents was elected in April 1989 to a revitalized Congress of People's Deputies. Millions of Soviets then watched the new congress for hours on television as Gorbachev and his ministers saw their proposals debated and even rejected. The result was a new political culture at odds with the Communist Party's monopoly of power and control. It ignited demands for greater autonomy and even for national independence by non Russian minorities, especially in the Baltic region and in the Caucasus.
This leader combined Stalinist brutality with
stubborn independence from Moscow in Romania.