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1.
stratified random sample: groups of interest (strata) chosen in such a way that they appear in approximately the same proportions in the sample as in the population

2.
subjects: human experimental units

3.
survey: obtaining responses to questions from individuals

4.
symmetric: data values distributed equally above and below the center of the distribution

5.
systematic bias: the mean of the sampling distribution of a statistic does not equal the mean of the population; see unbiased estimate

6.
systematic sample: probability sample in which one of the first n subjects is chosen at random for the sample and then each nth person after that is chosen for the sample

7.
t distribution: the distribution with n-1 degrees of freedom for the t statistic

8.
third quartile: 75th percentile

9.
treatment variable: explains changes in response variable; treatment variable; independent variable

10.
tree diagram: graphical technique for showing all possible outcomes in a probability experiment

11.
t statistic: t=xbar-mu/x/√n

12.
two-sided alternative: alternative hypothesis that can vary from the null in either direction; values much greater than or much less than the null provide evidence against the null

13.
two-sided test: a hypothesis test with a two-sided alternative

14.
two-way table: table that lists the outcomes of two categorical variables; the values of one category are given as the row variable, and the values of the other category are given as the column variable; also called a contingency table

15.
type-I error: the error made when a true hypothesis is rejected

16.
type-II error: the error made when a false hypothesis is not rejected

17.
unbiased estimate: mean of the sampling distribution for the estimate equals the parameter being estimate

18.
undercoverage: some groups in a population are not included in a sample from that population

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