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Space Race
Defend Earth from alien invaders
stratified random sample
groups of interest (strata) chosen in such a way that they appear in approximately the same proportions in the sample as in the population

subjects
human experimental units

survey
obtaining responses to questions from individuals

symmetric
data values distributed equally above and below the center of the distribution

systematic bias
the mean of the sampling distribution of a statistic does not equal the mean of the population; see unbiased estimate

systematic sample
probability sample in which one of the first n subjects is chosen at random for the sample and then each nth person after that is chosen for the sample

t distribution
the distribution with n-1 degrees of freedom for the t statistic

t statistic
t=xbar-mu/x/√n

third quartile
75th percentile

treatment variable
explains changes in response variable; treatment variable; independent variable

tree diagram
graphical technique for showing all possible outcomes in a probability experiment

two-sided alternative
alternative hypothesis that can vary from the null in either direction; values much greater than or much less than the null provide evidence against the null

two-sided test
a hypothesis test with a two-sided alternative

two-way table
table that lists the outcomes of two categorical variables; the values of one category are given as the row variable, and the values of the other category are given as the column variable; also called a contingency table

type-I error
the error made when a true hypothesis is rejected

type-II error
the error made when a false hypothesis is not rejected

unbiased estimate
mean of the sampling distribution for the estimate equals the parameter being estimate

undercoverage
some groups in a population are not included in a sample from that population

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