Praxis Art Content

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Salvador Dali

A Spanish surrealist artist and one of the most important painters of the 20th century. He was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking, bizarre, and beautiful images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters.

Vincent Van Gogh

Dutch postimpressionist painter noted for his use of color (1853-1890). Experimented with sharp brush lines and bright colors.

"I put my heart and my soul into my work, and have lost my mind in the process."
-Van Gogh

Diego Rivera

What Mexican artist painted murals in Detroit, New York, and San Francisco?

Frida Kahlo

famous female artist from Mexico whose art work was influenced by the personal tragedies in her life.
Married to Diego Rivera

Diego Rivera

Mexican Muralist who created artworks in Mexico and the U.S. focusing on political messages.

Rembrandt

Dutch painter who painted portraits of wealthy middle class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus

Francis Bacon

Expressionism
semi-abstracted figures, fondness of triptychs and disturbing themes.

Alexander Calder

Kinetic Sculpture

Invented the mobile

Alexander Calder

This artist created sculptures that moved in space.

Christo

Created large land works many consisting on wrapping vast natural areas. create new ways of seeing familiar landscapes.

El Greco

(1541-1614)
a. Greek artist who did most of his greatest work in
Spain
b. Perhaps the greatest of the Mannerists with his use
of elongated figures and unnatural pigments
c. Burial of Count Orgaz (1586-88) and Toledo (1597)
are two important examples of his work

Thomas Eakins

Realism
Specialized in painting the everyday lifes of working-class men and women and used the new technology of serial-actions photographs to study human anatomy and paint it more realistically.

greek architecture

Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian refer to

greek architecture

Doric- Simple style with sturdy columns whose tops were undecorated. Found in mainland Greece.

Ionic- Elegant style with thinner columns with decorated capitals. Found in eastern Greece.

Corinthian-Elaborate capital decorated with acanthus leaves. Found later and in Greece and not very popular, Later used in Roman times.

Piet Mondrian

Dutch painter whose work (intersecting lines at right angles and planes in primary colors) influenced the development of abstract art (1872-1944)

wassily kandinsky

was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. One of the most famous 20th-century artists, he is credited with painting the first modern abstract works.

marcel duchamp

[1887-1968] French painter who became a prominent exponent of DaDa created shocking pieces with his readymades -found objects.
He painted a mustache on the Mona Lisa which he called L.H.O.O.Q

leonardo da vinci

Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).

First to study and record the human body through pictures and paintings. He was a scientist, inventor, and artist. Born in Vinci, Italy on APril 15th, 1452.

donatello

This sculptor created sculptures that were a naturalistic variation on classical sculpture. He also brought back free-standing statues, which required greater anatomical detail and accuracy. His pieces are easily characterized by long, flowing robes.

Verrochio

sculptor, scupted 'david' depicted undeveloped, jewish boy david and florence's freedom loving spirit. boy stands challenging over goliath's head

I.M. Pei

Pritzker Prize-winning Chinese-born American architect, known as the last master of high modernist architecture.

Joseph Beuys

was a German performance artist, sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist and pedagogue of art.
His extensive work is grounded in concepts of humanism, social philosophy.
His career was characterized by passionate, even acrimonious public debate, but he is now regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century.

claes oldenburg

A pop artist who produced soft sculptures of gigantic everyday objects made of canvas and vinyl such as food, toilets and mixers.

James Whistler

(1834-1903) A member of the realist movement, although his works were often moody and eccentric. Best known for his Arrangement in Black and Grey, No.1, also known asWhistler's Mother.

Edgar Degas

A nineteenth-century French painter and sculptor. Among his preferred subjects were ballet dancers and scenes of cafe life.

Henry Moore

British Abstract Sculptor He was the most influential and famous scuplturer of his generation; Famous for his large abstract forms...

Louise Nevelson

assembled found objects and wood scraps in boxes, stacked together to make one large composition. usually painted in black and white

Paul Gaugin

a post-Impressionist artist (1848-1903), Gaugin, who was susceptible to depression, thought that European art lacked deep symbolism, and he was therefore drawn to the art forms in different lands such as South America, Japan, and Africa. Some of his paintings include "Where Do We Come From?" and "The Yellow Christ."

claude monet

a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting

Romare Bearden

1. Images concerned with his own personal experiences, history, literature, and art
2. Lived during the Harlem Renaissance, affect by intellectual, artistic, and political happenings
3. Collages use a lot of materials: fabrics, paper, foil, photographs, etc

Woodcut

a type of RELIEF PRINT made from an image that is left raised on a block of wood.

woodcut

a wooden block on the surface of which those parts not intended to print are cut away to a slight depth, leaving the design raised; also, a printed impression made with such a block when the ink is transferred from the raised surfaces to paper.

linocut

relief printmaking technique in which a block of linoleum is carved so as to leave image areas raised above the surface of the block; in function. Also the resultant print

lithography

a planographic printmaking technique based on the antipathy of oil and water. The image is drawn with a grease crayon or painted with tusche on a stone or grained aluminum plate. The surface is then chemically treated and dampened so that it will accept ink only where the crayon or tusche has been used.

planographic

printmaking technique in which the image areas are level with the surface of the printing plate.

relief printing

printmaking techniques in which the image is printed from the rasied areas of the printmaking block.

etching

making engraved or etched plates and printing designs from them

silk screen

a printmaking process in which stencils are applied to a screen of silk or similar material stretched on a frame. Paint or ink is forced through the open areas of the stencil onto paper beneath.

lithograph

a print produced by a printing process in which a smooth surface is treated so that ink will adhere only to the design to be printed

mezzotint

A printmaking process, the first tonal method to be used, achieves tonality by roughening the plate with thousands of little dots made by a metal tooth with small teeth called a "rocker," in printing, the tiny pits in the plate hold the ink when the face of the plate is wiped clean

intaglio

the collective term for several graphic processes in which prints are made from ink trapped in the grooves in an incised metal plate. Etchings and engravings are the most typical examples. (It may also refer to imagery incised on gems or hard stones, seals, and dies for coins, or to an object decorated in this way, which, when pressed or stamped into a soft substance, produces a positive relief in that substance.)

aquatint

This technique is so called because its finished prints often resemble watercolors or wash drawings. It is a favorite method of printmakers to achieve a wide range of tonal values. The technique consists of exposing the plate to acid through a layer (or sometimes succesive layers) of resin or sugar. The acid bites the plate only in the spaces between the resin particles, achieving a finely and evenly pitted surface that yields broad areas of tone when the grains are washed off and the plate is inked and printed. A great many tones can be achieved on a single plate by exposing different areas to different acid concentrations or different exposure times. Aquatint techniques are generally used in combination with etching or engraving to achieve linear definition. Aquatint was little favored by etchers until Francisco Goya used it to such great effect in his celebrated edition of 80 etchings entitled "Los Caprichos." After Goya the technique was used extensively by Edgar Degas and Camille Pissarro.

monotype

Monotype is a one-off technique in which a flat surface on copper, zinc or glass is painted with oil colors or ink and then passed through the etching press. The process permits only one copy; thus "monotype." Modern monotypes take advantage of a wide variety of materials including perspex, cardboard, etc., with artists creating veritable collages on the surface, then printing them for surprising results

Aperture

The lens opening that changes in diameter,thereby determining how much light passes through to expose the film.

F-Stop or F-Number

A number that indicates the size of the aperture lens opening such as f/1.4, f/4, f/5.6, f/16, and f/22. The larger the f-stop number, the smaller the lens opening. F-stop determines your depth of field.

Shutter Speed

The duration for which the aperture will remain open. On an SLR camera the shutter speed can be adjusted. The numbers represent either seconds or fractions of a second. For example, 1 = 1 second, 15 = 1/15 second, 60 = 1/60 second, etc.

Overexposure

The washed-out, overly bright areas of a photograph due to too much light reaching the film.

Underexposure

The muddy, dark areas of a photograph due to too little light reaching the film.

depth of field

the distance range between the nearest and farthest points that are in acceptably sharp focus. Depth of field is altered by 1. aperture size 2. length of lens 3. distance to subject

emulsion

a light sensitive coating applied to photographic films or papers. It consists of silver halide crystals and other chemicals suspended in gelatin

dodge

to lighten an area of a print by shading it during part of the printing exposure.

burn in

to darken a specific area of a print by giving it additional printing exposure

ISO

(international standards organization) a numerical rating that describes the sensitivity of a film to light. The ISO rating doubles as the sensitivity of the film doubles. rating combines the ASA (once standard in US) and the DIN (European standard) an example would be ISO 100/20*

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