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Personality Assessment Disorders Development

hypervigilants

a person who is on alert 24/7

generalized

nervous in most situations...sufferers experience persistent anxiety for 6 months and are unable to specify the reasons for the anxiety

somatoform disorders

physical complaints that result in body issues

hysteria

refers to physical symptoms that have no physical cause

hypochondriasis

pre-occupied with something...believes it is something more than what it is

conversion disorder

convert all your psychological disorders to your body (characterized by the nervous system)

body dismorphic

people find a flaw with themselves, that suspect everyone else of being able to see

schizophrenia

a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes.....a group of disorders that affects the way you feel, think, and even move around...Paranoia is MOST COMMON!!!

psychosis

characterized by delusions and or hallucinations

disorganized type

have inappropriate or exaggerated emotions

flat appearance

flat expressions on the face...showing no emotion

loose association

things that don't fit together

substance use disorder

Abuse- when you use drug despite the fact that it causes you problems...use drug as a medication
Dependence- all the things associated with abuse plus withdrawl and tolerance
1.) Tolerance-takes more and more to receive the
same feeling
2.) Withdrawl-if you stop using a substance cold
turkey, it could make you sick or kill you

recovery programs

12 step programs that help a person get over a habit

Axis I and Axis II Disorders

Axis I-the problem that the person comes to you with
Axis II-a personality disorder (harder to change because it always occurred)

anti-social behavior

means anti-society; in your extreme cases these are your serial killers

narcissistic

people who believe that they are better than you

borderline personality disorder

think in extremes; have insecure thoughts in what they think

histrionic individuals

people who demand attention

dependent personality

like other to take responsibility for you

2 types of developmental psychology

longitudinal-watch over a long time
cross sectional-take two groups at the same time

Minnesota Mulitphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

the most widely used self-report personality test...not only used to assess mental health, but it is also a tool for predicting which individuals will make the best job candidates and which career an individual should pursue

Humanists (Maslow's Hierarchy)

means that someone goes through life trying to fulfill needs...believes that human needs must be satisfied in the following sequence: psychological needs, safety, love and belongingness, esteem and self actualization

self-actualization

Be all that you can be!!! The motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being-the highest and most elusive of maslow's proposed needs

stigma

an assumption or negative feeling about mental disorders..attached to psychological disorders can provoke prejudice and discrimination towards individuals who are struggling with this problem

Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM)
*Most recent is DSM-IV-TR
-4th edition-text revision

a system of classification that allows us to classify people...classifies people on the basis of five dimensions or axes that take into account the individuals history and highest level of functioning in the previous years...
Axis I-all diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental
Axis II-personality disorders
Axis III-general medical conditions
Axis IV-enviromental and psychological issues
Axis V-current level of functioning

mood disorders

psychological disorders in which there is a primary disturbance of mood: prolonged emotion that colors the individuals entire emotional state
2 Types: Depressive and Bi-Polar disorders

Depression

unipolar mood disorder...mood disorders in which the individual suffers from depression: an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life

bi-polar mood disorder

very low lows (depression) and very high highs (mania); one extreme to another...a mood disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state

psychotic

lost touch with reality; through sensory reception or delusions- A thought that is not in a touch with reality

hallucination

most common is auditory-hear voices inside your head
*are sensory experience in the absence of real stimuli

delusions

false, unusual, and sometimes magical beliefs that are not apart of an individuals culture
*delusions of brandor-when you think that you are someone else

anxiety disorder

involves fears that are uncontrollable, disproportionate to the actual danger the person might be in, and disruptive of ordinary life

panic disorder

frequent panic attacks (short duration)
*however, a person experiences recurrent, sudden onsets of intense terror, often without warning and no specific cause!

agoraphobia

people who have a fear of going into the world
*MAD inhibitors (antidepressant drugs) might be used instead of anti-anxiety drugs

obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

mixture of obsessions and compulsions
*Anxiety disorder in which the individual has anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away and urges to perform repetitive ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation

obsession

a thought that pre-occupies your thoughts

compulsions

a behavior; do things to manage obsessions

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

unusual stressors that most people are not normally subject to
*an anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event that has overwhelmed the person's abilities to cope... ex:) flashbacks in which victim relives the event

developmental psychologist

the scientific study of how humans change physically, emotionally, morally, and cognitively and socially from conception to death

Jean Piaget

The famous swiss developmental psychologist, changed the way we think about the development of children's minds
*In his view, children use schemas to make sense of their experience
*Described two processes that describe how people use and respond to their schema: assimilation and accommodation

schema

a mental concept or framework that organizes information and provides structure for interpreting it

assimilation

occurs when individuals incorporate new info into existing knowledge

accommodation

occurs when individuals adjust their schemas to new information

object permanence

In the sensorimotor stage when out of sight is out of mind...to know that something still exists even though it's not present...
*Book definition: Piaget's term for the crucial accomplishment of understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they can not directly be seen, heard, or touched

sensorimotor stage

0-2 years old...when we explore the world and notice we can impact it (the stage where object permanence begins)

preoperational stage

2-7 years old..children think more abstractly
*thoughts exceed simple connections
*begin to represent their world with words, images and drawings
*limited symbolic thinking
*can't perform operations or conservation

concrete operational

7-11 years old...grasps the law of conservation when you can look at something with conservation- (belief in the permanence of certain values of objects despite superficial changes) and operations- (mental representations that are reversible)

formal operations

11-15 years old...it features thinking about things that are not concrete, making predictions, and using logic o come up with hypotheses about the future

egocentric

means that what someone thinks is public knowledge and that people think like you

personality

thoughts, feelings, and behavior that consists over time and behavior
*a pattern of enduring distinctive thoughts and emotions and behaviors that characterize the way individuals adapt to the world

type

means you fit into a category

trait

says it's a continuum

consistency paradox

you will rate your personality the same across situations, though your behavior is different
*combination: part is genetic and part is environment and upbringing
theory-> normal pers.-> abnormal pers.->therapy

Sigmund Freud

founding father of the psychodynamic approach....said that we had 2 motivators sex and aggression...said we develop psychoanalytical sexual experiences...by age 6, personality is set

Psychoanalytical Theory (3 structural parts)

super ego-good in life
id- operates in pleasure principles; want gratification! (devil on shoulder)
ego-mediate between the two

defense mechanisms

helps us defend against uncomfortability projection-like a projector, you project your feelings on someone else
*reduce anxiety by distorting reality

displacement

shift anger from something harder to something easier to displace it on....ex:) get mad at Dr. Mutchnick and go home and argue with roommate

repression

push it down and hide it away....ex:) a young girl was sexually abused by her uncle. As an adult, she can't remember anything about the traumatic experience

regression

go backwards to cope with feelings...ex:) a woman returns home to her mother everytime her and her husband have a big argument

reaction formation

do the opposite of what you're feeling...ex:) a woman who fears her sexual urges becomes a religious zealot

Freudian Tradition

take a vague stimulus and project something inside you
*projective test: to project your own meaning onto a stimulus

Rorschach Inkblot Test

The most famous projective test, developed in 1921 by the Swiss psychiatrist Herman Rorschach....the test consists of 10 cards, half in black and white, half in color. The individual views one at a time.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

A projective test, developed by Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan in the 1930s is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individuals personality.
*shown a series of pictures and asked to create a story leading up to and including events

behaviorist (Behavioral Genetics)

the study of inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics

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