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Jupiter

Disguised as a cloud, this Roman god appeared to Io in the painting commissioned by Federico Gonzaga of Mantua

Mannerism

exuberant style of art that arose in Italy in the last half of the 16th century; style in which the Classicizing tendencies of the High Renaissance were rejected in favor of exaggeration and distortion

ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI

Painted five separate versions of the biblical story of Judith and Holofernes, was a follower of Caravaggio, and was one of the first female artists to receive international acclaim

el greco

born Domenico Theotokopulos; trained as icon painter in Crete; moved from Venice to Rome to Spain; wedded Mannerism with Byzantine iconographic style; painted to convey an intensely expressive spirituality; often utilized strong verticality to elongate figures

Las Meninas

Spanish Baroque group portrait that used competing focal points to demonstrate complexity-- the light focuses on the princess Infanta Margarita but the title implies that the real subjects of the work are her attendants; the mirror focuses attention on king and queen, and the artist's self-conscious inclusion in the painting makes it to some extent a self-portrait

Caravaggio

Baroque artist known for his revolutionary painting and public scandals including murdering a referee in a tennis match, carrying weapons illegally, throwing artichokes at a waiter, and street brawling; frequently dramatizes the moment of conversion through the use of tenebrism

Don Quixote

Depicting the greatest hero of the picaresque tradition in Spanish literature, this tale uses everyday speech in dialogue; creates vivid and complex portraits of the main and subordinate characters, and presents the narrative in a solemn style free from affectation

quixotic

adjective meaning "idealistic and impractical" that came into being in response to Cervantes' picaresque hero who had a penchant for "tilting at windmills" (fighting illusory battles)

Council of Trent

convened by the pope in 1545 in response to the threat of the Protestant Reformation and to outline a path of reform for the Church; intended to set the proper path for pious followers; spearheaded the Catholic Counter-Reformation; forbade the selling of Church offices (simony) and religious goods; insisted on the use of religious imagery in art.

Foreshortening

technique that creates the illusion of greater space by making it seem as though forms are sharply receding; allows artists to make ceilings seem larger than they actually are; used to exaggerate depth

Kabbalah

Brand of mystical Jewish thought that seeks to attain the perfection of Heaven while still living in this world by transcending the boundaries of time and space

Tennebrism

artistic technique used in painting that makes use of large areas of dark contrasting sharply with smaller brightly illuminated areas

chiaroscuro

art term that in Italian literally means "light/dark"; use of slight gradations of light and dark to create special depth and volumetric forms

Picaresque

a genre of novel that narrates, in a realistic way, the adventures of a roguish hero of low social rank who is living by his wits in a corrupt society

Absolutism

term applied to strong centralized monarchies that exert royal power over their dominions, usually on the grounds of divine right; principle rooted in man/god kings of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt

Peter Paul Rubens

Flemish Baroque painter renowned for his pictorial approach through lifelike allegory; known for painting women with dippled flesh and fleshy folds draping across their bodies; the beauty of his female subjects rests in the sensuality of their bodies shaped by the self-indulgence and excess of the elite; his scenes are characterized by exaggerated diagonal movement

Diego Velazquez

Spanish court painter to Philip IV; studied in Venice, Florence, and Rome; disliked the paintings of Raphael because he found their linear style cold and inexpressive; painted Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor) that elevated the portrait to a level of complexity almost unmatched in the history of art

Tabula rasa

Means Blank Slate

Saint Teresa of Avila

wrote "The Way to Perfection," which describes the ascent of the soul to union with the Holy Spirit; her ecstatic union of body and spirit God is immortalized by Bernini in his famous statue housed in the Cornaro Chapel in Rome

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