Final Exam Study Guide

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After Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, it

quickly opened its northern territories to trade with the United States.

As a result of the War of 1812,

the growth of American manufacturing was stimulated.

During the administration of James Monroe,

the Federalist Party in effect ceased to exist.

In Cohens v. Virginia (1821), Chief Justice John Marshall affirmed the constitutionality of

Supreme Court review of state court decisions.

In McCullough v. Maryland (1819), the Supreme Court confirmed the

"implied powers" of Congress.

On his last day in office, President James Madison influenced "internal improvements" by

both supporting the idea of using federal funds to finance transportation construction, and vetoing a bill that would have used federal funds to construct roads and canals.

One cause of the Panic of 1819 was

new management practices within the Bank of the United States.

The Lancaster Pike was a road partially financed by the state of

Pennsylvania.

The Missouri Compromise of 1819

maintained the nation's equal number of slave and free states.

The Supreme Court ruled in Johnson v. McIntosh (1823) that

Indians had a basic right to their tribal lands

The Supreme Court ruling of Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

strengthened the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce

The so-called "corrupt bargain" was negotiated between

Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams.

What event prompted Spain to negotiate the sale of Florida to the United States?

the Seminole War

The policy expressed in the Monroe Doctrine was principally directed at

Europe

The election of 1828

saw the emergence of a new two-party system.

According to Andrew Jackson's theory of democracy

all white male citizens should be treated equally

As a result of the United States government's Indian policy in the 1830s and 1840s,

nearly all American Indian societies were removed to west of the Mississippi.

As president, Andrew Jackson believed the power of the federal government

should be reduced and yet was supreme over individual states.

From the following groups, support for the Whigs was weakest among

small Western farmers

In 1833, the nullification crisis came to an end after President Andrew Jackson

authorized the use of military force to see the acts of Congress were obeyed.

In 1836, President Andrew Jackson's "specie circular"

resulted in a severe financial panic.

In the 1830 Daniel Webster-Robert Hayne debate, Webster considered Hayne's arguments to be an attack on

federal authority

In the 1820s, Whig support for the Anti-Mason Party demonstrated

the desire of the party to attract the largest possible number of voters.

John C. Calhoun drew his doctrine of nullification ideas from the

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions and the United States Constitution

President Andrew Jackson's success in abolishing the Bank of the United States

left the nation with an unstable banking system for many years

The Black Hawk War

was notable for vicious behavior by the American military.

The Supreme Court ruled in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)

that Georgia had no authority to remove the Cherokee tribes

The primary goal of the United States' policy toward Indians in the early 1800s was to

acquire the land occupied by Indian tribes

The Supreme Court ruling in Charles River Bridge Company v. Warren Bridge Company (1837)

reflected Jacksonian ideas of democracy and economic opportunity

After 1852, the "Know-Nothings" created a new political organization called the

American Party.

American factory workers in early nineteenth-century textile mills largely consisted of

families and rural, single women

Before 1860, American middle-class families

became the most influential cultural form of urban America

Before 1860, the largest single group of arriving Irish immigrants was

young, single women

Between 1800 and 1830, immigration to the United States

was not a significant contributor to the national population.

Between 1820 and 1840, the population of the United States

rapidly grew, in part, due to improved public health

By the middle of the nineteenth century, merchant capitalists in the United States

were shifting from trade to manufacturing.

For most American farmers, the 1840s and 1850s was a period of

rising prosperity due to increased world demand for farm products

In the 1830s, Cyrus McCormick improved grain farming when he patented his

reaper.

In the 1840s, P.T. Barnum's American Museum in New York showcased

human oddities

Prior to 1860, class conflict in the United States

was limited by a high degree of mobility within the working class.

The Erie Canal was

a tremendous financial success.

The main staple crop of the Old Northwest (today's Midwest) was

wheat.

The growth of commerce and industry allowed more Americans the chance to become prosperous without

owning land.

Between 1840 and 1860, the American Southern slave population

dramatically shifted into the Southwest

By 1860, the textile manufacturing sector of the American South

had increased threefold in value over the previous twenty years

During the first half of the nineteenth century, the "Cotton Kingdom"

was the dominant source of income of the lower South

From the selections below, the most common form of resistance to slavery was

subtle defiance.

In 1850, outside of the United States, slavery in the Western Hemisphere existed in

Brazil.

In general, slaves had more privacy and a social realm of their own

on large plantations

In the 1850s, the Southern social theorist George Fitzhugh wrote that women

All these answers are correct.

Most enslaved blacks lived

on medium- to large-size plantations

Rice and sugar production in the antebellum South

were concentrated in a relatively small geographic area.

Prior to 1860, the center of economic power in the South

shifted from the upper South to the lower South.

The chance of a runaway slave making a successful escape from the American South was

highly unlikely

The conditions of a slave's life

depended in part on the size of the plantation.

Prior to 1860, Southern women differed from Northern women in that they

were expected to be more subordinate to men.

Prior to 1860, how did the role and status of Southern women compare to that of Northern women?

Discussion

According to the nineteenth-century "science" of phrenology, what could be discerned from the shape of an individual's skull?

her character and intelligence

During the nineteenth century, the largest obstacle to improved medical care in America was

the absence of basic knowledge about disease.

Frederick Douglass

spent years lecturing in England against slavery

In the 1830s and 1840s, abolitionists were divided

All these answers are correct

In the 1840s in the United States, an initial understanding of germ theory was made by

Oliver Wendell Holmes.

In the 1840s, abolitionists in the United States constituted

a small percentage of the national population.

Mormonism

believed in human perfectibility

Prior to 1860, public education in the United States

gave the nation one of the highest literacy rates in the world.

Prior to the Civil War, free blacks in the North tended to be

strongly opposed to Southern slavery.

The American Colonization Society helped to transport blacks from the United States to

Liberia.

The Massachusetts reformer who built a national movement for new methods of treating the criminally ill was

Dorothea Dix.

The Hudson River School of painters emphasized in their work the importance of

natural beauty.

The nineteenth-century reformer Horace Mann believed that education should promote

democracy.

The primary goal of the 1840s community experiment known as Brook Farm was

to permit all members to realize their full potential as individual beings.

As a result of his 1858 debates with Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln

gained many new supporters outside of Illinois

As a result of the gold rush, by 1850, California

had a very diverse population.

As president, James K. Polk

None of these answers is correct.

Before the early 1850s, Americans who traveled west on the overland trails were generally

relatively young people who traveled in family groups

During the 1840s, the United States added more than one ___________ square miles of new territory under its control.

million

During the Mexican War,

President Polk personally plotted military strategy for the United States.

In The Pro-Slavery Argument (1837), John C. Calhoun stated that slavery was

a "positive good."

In the 1840s, regional critics of President James K. Polk claimed his policies favored

the South.

In the 1850s, the "Young America" movement

supported the expansion of American democracy throughout the world.

In the 1858 Abraham Lincoln-Stephen Douglas debates,

Lincoln argued slavery was a threat to the growth of white free labor.

Kansas entered the United States

after several Southern states had left the Union.

Southern defenders of slavery made all of the following arguments EXCEPT

black codes protected slaves from abuse

The Chinese who came to California during the gold rush

had similar aspirations as the American participants.

The Compromise of 1850 essentially restored the Missouri Compromise.

False

"Copperheads" were

often arrested on the order of President Lincoln

A major federal victory occurred in April 1862 when Union troops captured the city of

New Orleans

African-American soldiers in the Union

experienced a higher mortality rate than white soldiers

At the start of the Civil War, the armed forces of the United States

saw many of its soldiers stationed in the West.

During the Civil War, "greenbacks" issued by the federal government

fluctuated in value depending on the fortunes of the Northern armies.

During the Civil War, as a result of new technology in weapons

attention to defensive fortifications increased.

In 1860, President James Buchanan asserted

All these answers are correct.

In the Civil War, at lower levels of military command

amateur officers played important roles in both the Union and Confederate armies.

In the Civil War, the number of deaths for every 100,000 of the population was

2,000

Politically, the Confederate constitution

was almost identical in many respects to the Constitution of the United States.

President Abraham Lincoln believed the main objective of the Union armies was to

destroy Confederate armies.

Taxes enacted by the United States Congress to help finance the Civil War

included a new income tax.

The 1862 Morrill Land Grant Act was designed to help

education.

The U.S. Military Telegraph Corps was headed by Thomas Scott and what future Gilded Age tycoon?

Andrew Carnegie

The Union's Committee on the Conduct of the War

greatly interfered with the military chain of command and the conduct of the war.

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