Protects, regulates temperature, houses sensory receptors, synthesizes chemicals and excretes waste.
List the 5 functions of the skin.
Radiation of heat through subcutaneous dilated blood vessels, evaporation of perspiration on the surface of the skin, and convection and conduction of heat directly through the skin.
List the 3 ways that the body eliminates excessive heat.
d. all of the above
Which of the following demonstrates how the skin acts to protect the body: a. it is not easily damaged b. it contains the internal organs c. it acts as a physical barrier between the inside and outside of the body d. all of the above.
Stratum basale and stratum spinosum
What two layers of the epidermis make up the stratum germinativum?
What function do the cells in the stratum germinativum perform that other layers of skin do not?
A chemical produced by the skin that makes the skin tough, resistant to abrasion and waterproof.
In the stratum granulosum, cells have accumulated enough _____ in them that they start to become distinctive.
Layer of the skin that is composed of 20-30 layers of flattened, keratinized dead cells.
Connective tissue, housing muscle fibers, blood vessels, hair follicles, exocrine glands and sensory nerve fiber
List the 6 components of the Dermis.
True or False: Dermal ridges are caused by the pulling of elastic fibers in the papillary layer.
Layer of Dermis composed of dense irregular connective tissue underlying the papillary layer.
True or False: the dense irregular tissue in the reticular layer is composed of large diameter collagen fibers.
Layer of skin made up of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue interlaced with blood vessels.
True or False: the adipose tissue conserves internal body heat and/or impedes the entrance of external heat.
True or False: there is no distinction in the adipose tissue distribution between men and women.
A genetic defect in the process that manufactures melanin is known as: a. Cancer b. melatinosis c. albinism d. freckles
Blood flow, carotene, thicker stratum corneum and melanin
List 4 things that affect the color of the skin.
Thicker stratum corneum
People of Asian descent generally have a yellowish pigment to their skin because they have ____
True or False: skin color functions in part to show both age differences and sexual dimorphism.
True or False: the presence of a thicker stratum corneum will protect the skin in ways similar to melanin.
Production of _____ is dependent upon sufficient amounts of UV radiation reaching the dermis to facilitate this process.
In areas of low UV production, dark skin increases or decreases the production of vitamin D.
Light / Dark
_____ colored skin tends to appear more frequently in higher latitudes because _____ colored skin is more susceptible to damage by extreme cold.
True or False: the hair and the hair follicle reside in the dermis and subcutaneous layer but originate from the epidermal tissue.
True or False: the follicle is a hollow tube originating from the dermis and subcutaneous layer.
a column of flattened, dead keratinized cells within the follicle, still imbedded within the skin.
Shaft / Root
In a hair follicle, the _____ is external to the skin's surface while the _____ is still imbedded within the skin.
True or False: Humans do not greatly differ in their degree of hairiness based on geographic distribution.
True or False: Squamous cell carcinoma is more harmful because it is more likely to metastasize.
Cutaneous melanoma is due to _____ periods of exposure to UV radiation: a. long but moderate b. short but intense c. long and intense d. short and moderate
True or False: Epithelial tissue is most susceptible to neoplasms because of the amount of meiotic activity occurring in the tissue.
Which of the following are most likely to become cancerous: a. freckles b. birth marks c. moles d. warts
Asymmetry, (irregular) Borders, (abnormal and/or multiple) Colors, (increasing or large) Diameter, Evolution
What is the ABCDE rule for identification of Cutaneous melanoma?
False (Cutaneous melanoma)
True or False: the ABCDE rule is used to identify possible Cutaneous carcinomas.
Changes in the texture of your hair, the hardness of your nails and the texture of your skin might be a clinical indicator of _____.
Specific diseases may be indicated by changes in the integumentary system. _____ is an example of a visible change to the skin that indicates a disease present in the liver.
Loss of elasticity in the dermis and a decrease in the amount of adipose tissue together create _____.
A decrease in perspiration in the _____ gland impacts the body's response to increasing temperatures.
True or False: Aging produces a decrease in the activity of the sebaceous gland (resulting in the decreased production of sebum).
False (men and women experience thinning hair as a result of aging)
True or False: the thinning of hair in men is an example of sexual dimorphism in aging.
Dermis loses elasticity, skin as a whole thins out (loss of adipose tissue), decreased activity in hair follicles and exocrine glands (loss of pigmentation in hair), and an increase in number of moles
List 4 signs of aging indicated by the integumentary system.
Loss of elasticity in the dermis occurs as the collagen fibers in the _____ layer lose elasticity.
Holocrine gland, secretes sebum, compound alveolar shape, connected to the hair follicle
List 4 characteristics of the Sebaceous gland.
A substance secreted by the sebaceous gland which lubricates and waterproofs the hair and skin.
Odiferous apocrine gland, secretes sweat, tubular in shape and connected to the hair follicle
List 4 characteristics of the Apocrine gland.
Merocrine gland, secretes sweat, tubular in shape, exits directly onto the skin
List 4 characteristics of the Eccrine gland.
Which of the following is the primary component of evaporative cooling: a. sebaceous gland b. apocrine gland c. eccrine gland d. lunula
True or False: the eccrine gland helps to keep the body cool by cooling blood vessels in the dermis via sweating.
Which of the following gland(s) is under the influence of the sex hormones: a. sebaceous b. apocrine c. eccrine d. sebaceous and apocrine e. apocrine and eccrine
Hair (and the hair follicle), Nails, Glands, and Cutaneous sensory receptors
Name the 4 accessory integumentary organs.
Stratum Basale and Stratum Spinosum
When a cut is superficial and involves only the epidermis it results in greater mitotic activity in the ____ and the ____.
Epidermis, Dermis and/or Subcutaneous Layer
Wounds that cause the rupture of blood vessels with resultant bleeding may involve which 3 layers of skin?
Blood Platelets and fibrinogen proteins
_____ and _____ form a clot which stops bleeding in a wound that involves the dermis and/or the subcutaneous layer.
True or False: in a bleeding wound, blood vessels bring immune cells into a wound as they attempt to reconnect.
_____ manufacture new connective tissue and collagen fibers to help bind wounds together.
False (epidermis only)
True or False: in a first degree burn, the epidermis and the dermis are damaged.
False (2nd Degree)
True or False: In a 3rd degree burn you may see little islands of healing within the perimeters as the glands have remained in-tact.
Peeling / Blistering
_____ is a characteristic of a 1st degree burn while _____ is a characteristic of a 2nd degree burn.