True or False: the skin is an organ.
Protects, regulates temperature, houses sensory receptors, synthesizes chemicals and excretes waste.
List the 5 functions of the skin.
Skin and accessory organs
The integumentary system is composed of ____ and _____
Radiation of heat through subcutaneous dilated blood vessels, evaporation of perspiration on the surface of the skin, and convection and conduction of heat directly through the skin.
List the 3 ways that the body eliminates excessive heat.
True or False: Keratin is a chemical synthesized by the skin.
d. all of the above
Which of the following demonstrates how the skin acts to protect the body: a. it is not easily damaged b. it contains the internal organs c. it acts as a physical barrier between the inside and outside of the body d. all of the above.
Stratum basale and stratum spinosum
What two layers of the epidermis make up the stratum germinativum?
What function do the cells in the stratum germinativum perform that other layers of skin do not?
the deepest layer of the skin.
True or False: the stratum basale is still slightly mitotic.
In which layer of the epidermis does the synthesis of keratin occur?
A chemical produced by the skin that makes the skin tough, resistant to abrasion and waterproof.
What gives the stratum spinosum a slightly spiney look?
4 / 5
How many layers are present in thin skin vs thick skin
Present in only the thickest skin
In the stratum granulosum, cells have accumulated enough _____ in them that they start to become distinctive.
Palms of the hands and soles of the feet
What two areas of the body present with stratum lucidum?
Layer of the skin that is composed of 20-30 layers of flattened, keratinized dead cells.
Connective tissue, housing muscle fibers, blood vessels, hair follicles, exocrine glands and sensory nerve fiber
List the 6 components of the Dermis.
How many layers are present in the Dermis? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4
Layer of Dermis directly underlying the epidermis.
Which layer of the dermis contains dermal ridges?
_____ are an example of dermal ridges
True or False: Dermal ridges are caused by the pulling of elastic fibers in the papillary layer.
True or False: Stretch marks are caused by accumulating tears in the papillary layer
Layer of Dermis composed of dense irregular connective tissue underlying the papillary layer.
True or False: the dense irregular tissue in the reticular layer is composed of large diameter collagen fibers.
True or False: Stretch marks occur in the reticular layer.
Distensible and resilient
List two characteristics of the reticular layer.
This layer of skin is responsible for giving skin its elasticity.
Layer of skin made up of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue interlaced with blood vessels.
Heat insulator and energy reservoir
Adipose tissue serves what two functions?
The adipocytes in adipose tissue can be used for _____
True or False: the adipose tissue conserves internal body heat and/or impedes the entrance of external heat.
True or False: there is no distinction in the adipose tissue distribution between men and women.
True or False: thickness of the subcutaneous layer can be indicative of nutritional status.
The term that indicates sexual differences (differences between men and women).
_____ binds the skin to underlying organs.
A genetic defect in the process that manufactures melanin is known as: a. Cancer b. melatinosis c. albinism d. freckles
Blood flow, carotene, thicker stratum corneum and melanin
List 4 things that affect the color of the skin.
True or False: Carotene is a yellowish pigment produced by cells found in the stratum basale.
Carotene is acquired through _____
Thicker stratum corneum
People of Asian descent generally have a yellowish pigment to their skin because they have ____
The brown-black pigment produced in the stratum basale.
True or False: Everyone has approximately the same number of melanocytes
Small, isolated patches of highly concentrated melanin secretions are known as _____
True or False: skin color functions in part to show both age differences and sexual dimorphism.
Darkest skin tones are found in areas of increased or decreased sunlight?
What process does melanin protect?
True or False: the presence of a thicker stratum corneum will protect the skin in ways similar to melanin.
Melanocytes response to increased amounts of ultraviolet radiation.
Production of _____ is dependent upon sufficient amounts of UV radiation reaching the dermis to facilitate this process.
In areas of low UV production, dark skin increases or decreases the production of vitamin D.
True or False: vitamin D is necessary for bone growth
Rickets / Osteomalacia
Vitamin D deficiency will produce _____ in children and _____ in adults.
Vitamin D maintains the _____ of the skeleton.
True or False: light skin tones are more susceptible to frostbite.
Light / Dark
_____ colored skin tends to appear more frequently in higher latitudes because _____ colored skin is more susceptible to damage by extreme cold.
The hair and the hair follicle are _____ integumentary organs.
True or False: the hair and the hair follicle reside in the dermis and subcutaneous layer but originate from the epidermal tissue.
_____ houses the hair
True or False: the follicle is a hollow tube originating from the dermis and subcutaneous layer.
Root, Bulb and Shaft
List the 3 parts of the hair.
Deepest zone, zone of actively dividing cells at the base of the hair.
a column of flattened, dead keratinized cells within the follicle, still imbedded within the skin.
a column of flattened dead keratinized cells external to the skin's surface.
Shaft / Root
In a hair follicle, the _____ is external to the skin's surface while the _____ is still imbedded within the skin.
Arrector pili muscle
Muscle responsible for the production of goose bumps.
The contraction of the arrector pili muscle is a. voluntary b. involuntary c. mostly voluntary
The red coloration of hair is due to the pigment containing _____
True or False: Grey hair is a combination of both pigmented and unpigmented hairs
The pigmentation of hair is based upon _____ located in the base of the hair bulb.
Protection and Identification
List the 2 functions of hair
Signifies age, sex, and the individual
In what ways does hair act as an identifier?
True or False: Sexual dimorphism is present in the production of hair.
True or False: Humans do not greatly differ in their degree of hairiness based on geographic distribution.
Modified hardened stratum corneum
The nail plate is composed of _____.
Nail root, nail body and free edge
List the 3 parts of the nail plate
Stratum basale and stratum spinosum
The nail bed is located in what two layers of skin?
Dermis and subcutaneous layer
What two layers of skin are located under the nail bed?
What regenerative process occurs within the root of the nail?
The light half-moon region of the nail plate is called _____
The _____ appears to be white because the underlying nail bed is so thick.
True or False: only primates have nails.
Protection and dexterity
List the two functions of the nail.
Any kind of abnormal proliferation of cells.
Cutaneous carcinoma is thought to be due to long or short term exposure to UV radiation.
Cutaneous carcinoma and Cutaneous melanoma
List two types of neoplasms that are malignant.
Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma
List two types of Cutaneous carcinomas.
Less / more
Basal cell carcinoma is _____ harmful while squamous cell carcinoma is _____ harmful.
True or False: Squamous cell carcinoma is more harmful because it is more likely to metastasize.
Melanoma that has become malignant is known as _____.
Cutaneous melanoma is due to _____ periods of exposure to UV radiation: a. long but moderate b. short but intense c. long and intense d. short and moderate
Malignant / benign
Neoplasms are either _____ (life threatening) or _____ (not life threatening)
Tissue that is most susceptible to neoplasms is known as _____ tissue.
True or False: Epithelial tissue is most susceptible to neoplasms because of the amount of meiotic activity occurring in the tissue.
Which of the following are most likely to become cancerous: a. freckles b. birth marks c. moles d. warts
Asymmetry, (irregular) Borders, (abnormal and/or multiple) Colors, (increasing or large) Diameter, Evolution
What is the ABCDE rule for identification of Cutaneous melanoma?
False (Cutaneous melanoma)
True or False: the ABCDE rule is used to identify possible Cutaneous carcinomas.
A benign growth of pigmented melanocytes
An abnormal growth of skin tissue caused by viral infection
Another word for mole is _____
Another word for wart is _____
Sweat does not evaporate as easily.
Why is heat stroke more of a concern in areas of high humidity?
Changes in the texture of your hair, the hardness of your nails and the texture of your skin might be a clinical indicator of _____.
Hair and Nails
Heavy metals concentrate in what two accessory organs of the integumentary system?
An example of a clinical indicator of allergies in the integumentary system is _____
Specific diseases may be indicated by changes in the integumentary system. _____ is an example of a visible change to the skin that indicates a disease present in the liver.
Loss of elasticity in the dermis and a decrease in the amount of adipose tissue together create _____.
Increasing sensitivity to cold temperatures indicates a decrease in the _____ tissue
A decrease in perspiration in the _____ gland impacts the body's response to increasing temperatures.
True or False: Aging produces a decrease in the activity of the sebaceous gland (resulting in the decreased production of sebum).
False (men and women experience thinning hair as a result of aging)
True or False: the thinning of hair in men is an example of sexual dimorphism in aging.
Dermis loses elasticity, skin as a whole thins out (loss of adipose tissue), decreased activity in hair follicles and exocrine glands (loss of pigmentation in hair), and an increase in number of moles
List 4 signs of aging indicated by the integumentary system.
Loss of elasticity in the dermis occurs as the collagen fibers in the _____ layer lose elasticity.
Iron deficiency anemia
Pale skin and spoon nails are a clinical indicator of _____.
Integumentary glands are exocrine or endocrine in structure and function.
Holocrine gland, secretes sebum, compound alveolar shape, connected to the hair follicle
List 4 characteristics of the Sebaceous gland.
Clogged sebaceous ducts result in _____.
A substance secreted by the sebaceous gland which lubricates and waterproofs the hair and skin.
True or False: sebum has antibacterial and antifungal properties
Axillary and Pubic
The apocrine gland is concentrated in the _____ and _____ regions.
Odiferous apocrine gland, secretes sweat, tubular in shape and connected to the hair follicle
List 4 characteristics of the Apocrine gland.
Merocrine gland, secretes sweat, tubular in shape, exits directly onto the skin
List 4 characteristics of the Eccrine gland.
Which of the following is the primary component of evaporative cooling: a. sebaceous gland b. apocrine gland c. eccrine gland d. lunula
True or False: the eccrine gland helps to keep the body cool by cooling blood vessels in the dermis via sweating.
The _____ gland is known as the "True" sweat gland.
Which of the following gland(s) is under the influence of the sex hormones: a. sebaceous b. apocrine c. eccrine d. sebaceous and apocrine e. apocrine and eccrine
Hair (and the hair follicle), Nails, Glands, and Cutaneous sensory receptors
Name the 4 accessory integumentary organs.
Stratum Basale and Stratum Spinosum
When a cut is superficial and involves only the epidermis it results in greater mitotic activity in the ____ and the ____.
Epidermis, Dermis and/or Subcutaneous Layer
Wounds that cause the rupture of blood vessels with resultant bleeding may involve which 3 layers of skin?
Blood Platelets and fibrinogen proteins
_____ and _____ form a clot which stops bleeding in a wound that involves the dermis and/or the subcutaneous layer.
True or False: in a bleeding wound, blood vessels bring immune cells into a wound as they attempt to reconnect.
_____ manufacture new connective tissue and collagen fibers to help bind wounds together.
False (epidermis only)
True or False: in a first degree burn, the epidermis and the dermis are damaged.
What is not damaged in a 2nd degree burn?
False (2nd Degree)
True or False: In a 3rd degree burn you may see little islands of healing within the perimeters as the glands have remained in-tact.
Peeling / Blistering
_____ is a characteristic of a 1st degree burn while _____ is a characteristic of a 2nd degree burn.
True or False: a 3rd degree burn victim may not feel pain immediately as the pain receptors in the skin have been destroyed.