PT Endocrine System and Hormones

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insulin

A hormone synthesized and secreted by the pancreas.

glucagon

A hormone that works antagonistically with insulin and is released when blood glucose levels fall below normal.

hypercalcemia

A disorder resulting from an overactive parathyroid gland.

hypothalamus

Activates, controls, and integrates the peripheral autonomic nervous system, endocrine processes and many somatic functions, such as body temperature, sleep, and appetite.

anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin) and oxytocin

Neural stimulation of the posterior pituitary causes the secretion of two effector hormones.

adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and gonads

Secretion of trophic hormones stimulates these areas.

hormones

Natural chemical substances secreted into the bloodstream from the endocrine glands that regulate and control the activity of an organ or tissues in another part of the body.

Pituitary Gland

A small gland situated at the base of the brain that secretes hormones directly into the blood stream to control and regulate the other endocrine glands.

Anterior Pituitary Gland

Secretes at least six hormones: GH, ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, and PRL.

ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)

This hormone is used generally for diagnostic testing and not for therapeutic purposes.

TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

Stimulates the thyroid gland to increase the uptake of iodine and increase the syntheses and release of thyroid hormones. This is prescribed for hypothyroidism and diagnostic tests.

ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)

This hormone acts on the distal and collecting tubules of the kidneys, making them more permeable to water and reduce the volume of the urine.

Oxytocin

This hormone produces powerful contractions of the pregnant uterus and causes milk to flow from lactating breasts.

Diabetes Insipidus

A disease that results from a deficiency of ADH -- water is not reabsorbed by the kidney and is excreted in the urine.

Thyroid Gland

This gland synthesizes, stores, and secretes hormones (T₃, T₄ and calcitonin) that are important to growth, development, and metabolic rate. It is located in the anterior neck and is the largest of the endocrine glands.

Calcitonin

This hormone has a very important role in calcium metabolism. It is used to treat hypercalcemia, osteoporosis, and Paget's disease.

Hypothyroidism

A deficiency disease that causes cretinism (mental and physical retardation) in children. In adults, it is from hypothalamic pituitary or thyroid insufficiency or resistance to thyroid hormone (myxedema).

Hyperthyroidism

A condition of excessive amounts of thyroxine. This condition stimulates cellular metabolism and increases respiration and body temperature. It causes nervousness and tremors.

Graves' disease

An example of hyperthyroidism.

Parathyroid Gland

Four tiny glands that lie along the posterior surface of the thyroid gland which release PTH when there is a low plasma level of calcium.

PTH (parathyroid hormone)

This hormone targets bones, the digestive tract (intestines), and the kidneys. The overall effect is to increase plasma calcium levels.

Adrenal Glands

These glands are located at the top of each kidney and consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla.

Adrenal Cortex

Synthesizes three important classes of hormones: glucocorticoids (cortisol), mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone), and androgens.

Medulla

This secretes two hormones: epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Glucocorticoids

The most common use of these agents is treatment of arthritic and rheumatic disorders.

Aldosterone

The primary mineralocorticoid used to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. It promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidneys to preserve extracellular fluid volume (blood).

Pancreas

This produces digestive enzymes that are deposited in the small intestine. α cells produce glucagons to raise blood glucose levels and β cells release insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels.

Diabetes Mellitus

A complex disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism is caused by lack of or inefficient use of insulin in the body.

Glucose administration

Relieves the symptoms of insulin overdosage.

Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate)

A contraceptive medication given as a deep IM injection of 150 mg every 3 months and has an efficacy of 99.7%.

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