Chapter 16 Cold War

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Satellite State

Country controlled by a more powerful nation

Cold War

Worldwide rivalry between the U.S. and Soviet Union

Iron Curtain

Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.

Truman Doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology

Containment

keeping Communism from spreading to countries that are not Communist

Marshall Plan

a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)

Berlin Airlift

airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin

NATO

an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security

Warsaw Pact

treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania

Jiang Jieshi

Chinese nationalist leader that was against Mao and supported by the US

Mao Zedong

Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)

38th Parallel

line of latitude that separated North and South Korea

Douglas MacArthur

United States general who served commander of U.S and U.N. forces during the Korean War

Limited War

war fought to achieve only specific goals

Kim Il Sung

Communist leader of North Korea; his attack on South Korea in 1950 started the Korean War. He remained in power until 1994.

Symnan Rhee

Rhee was elected first President of Korea, which he ruled with a strong hand for twelve critical years (1875-1965).

Arms Race

a competition between nations to have the most powerful armaments

Mutually Assured Destruction

(MAD) if either US or the USSR was hit with a nuclear weapons they would respond with the same

Brinkmanship

the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)

Nikita Kruschev

Soviet leader during 1950's - 60's

Nationalize

put under state control or ownership

Suez Crisis

July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power

Eisenhower Doctrine

policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country

CIA

an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest

NASA

an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight

Sputnik

The world's first space satellite; launched by the Soviets

Red Scare

a period of general fear of communists

HUAC

The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,

Hollywood Ten

Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in Hollywood

Blacklist

put on a blacklist so as to banish or cause to be boycotted

Alger Hiss

A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.

Joseph R. McCarthy

led a crusade to investigate officials he claimed were Communists

McCarthyism

unscrupulously accusing people of disloyalty (as by saying they were Communists)

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