Developmental theorists attempt to provide a natural history of criminal behavior by encompassing
its onset, continuation, and termination
Latent trait theorists believe human development is controlled by a master trait present at birth or soon after that
increases propensity to crime
Using data from a longitudinal study of youth, Loeber identified distinct pathways to crime. Which pathway begins at an early age with stubborn behavior?
the authority conflict pathway
The general theory of crime considers the criminal offender and the criminal acts as _ aspects of criminality
Children exposed to violence at home, at school, or in the environment may adopt violent methods themselves. Which children are most likely to engage in violent behavior?
those exposed to violence in the home and who live in a neighborhood with high violence rates
A number of research studies have been focused on armed robbery, what have they found?
robbers are rational decision makers who look for easy prey
_ are typically located in rural areas and attack miliatry, police, and government targets in an effort to unseat or replace the existing government
This term began to be used during the iraq war and described the forces opposed to American involvement. Members are typically organized into covert groups who engage in organized campaigns of violence aimed at popular uprising
Criminologists suspect that, of the millions of property theft realted crimes that occur each year, most are commited by
False pretenses or fraud differs from traditional larceny because
the victims willingly give their posessions to the offender
Why do most juristicitions punish burglary as a felony?
because the potential for harm to the occupants is significant
Ralph stole a car and drove around for a few hours showing it off. What type of auto crime is it?
Developmental theories attempt to explain
the natural history of a criminal career, its onset, the course it follows, and its termination
Life course theories
reflecting the view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by many characteristics, traits, and experiences, and that behavior changes accordingly overtime
Problem behavior syndrome
a cluster of antisocial behvaiors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, precocious sexuality, physical abuse, education, underachievement, suicide attempts, unemployment - crime is a social problem rather than a result of other social problems
Pathways to Crime (Covert)
begins with minor underhanded behavior and progressed to property damage and theft
Pathways to Crime (Overt)
begins with minor agression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually ends with violent crime
Latent Trait Theory
crime is controlled by a master trait, present at birth or soon after that remains stable and unchanging throughout a persons lifetime
discrete factors influence people at different stages in their development, so the propensity to commit crimes is neither stable nor unyielding
Second Degree Murder
disregard for the victims life and their desire to inflict bodily harm to the victim results in the victims death
killing commited in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel that provoked violence
killing that occurs when a persons acts are negligent and without regard for the harm they may cause - drunk driving
killer of multiple victims whose murders ocur over a relatively short span of time and often have no pattern
taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody or control of people by force or theat of force or violence and or putting the victim in fear
nationalist or localist groups that engage in civil war against a soverign power that holds control of land
do not define themselves by a criminal role or view, motivated by inducement, oppurtunity or need.
taking for ones own use the property of another, by means other than force or threats on the victim or forcible breaking into a persons home or workplace
when a person voluntarily gives up physical custody of their property by retain legal ownership
professional shoplifter who steals with intention of reselling stolen merchandise
(Shoplifting) Target Removal Strategy
showing fake merchandise such as a cardboard VCR to prevent stealing
stable feature, characteristic property or condition present at birth or soon after, that makes some people crime prone
Wilson & Herrnstein crime and Human nature
all human behavior, including criminality, is determined by its perceieved consequences. A criminal incident occurs when an individual chooses over conventional behvaior. They assume that both biological and psychological traits influence the choice between crime and non crime.
General Theory of Crime
people with limited self-control tend to be insensitive to other peoples feelings - predisposed to physical rather than mental solutions, the root cause is inadequate child-rearing
Why men commit rape
focus on evolutionary, biological aspects of male sexual drive. Some say its a form of socialization. Rape arises primarily from a desire to inflict pain and humilation, but there is evidence that at least some rapists have sexual feelings for their victims
Issues involving rape and the law
proving guilt in rape case is extremely challenging. Its essential to prove that the attack was forced and that the victim did not give consent.
many chose victims who are already involved in illegal behaviors (ex. drug dealers). Also, females likely attack females.
Hate Crimes (bias crimes)
violent acts directed toward a particular person or members of another group because they are a diff race
specific person, repeated physical proximity, nonconsensual communication, written or implied theats
(Forms of Terrorism) Revolutionary
use of violence to replace the existing government with a regime that holds acceptible political or religious views
(Forms of Terrorism) National
promotes interests of a minority ethnic group that believes it has been persecuted under majority rule
(Forms of Terrorism) State-sponsored
represenative government regime forces its citizens into obedience, oppress minorities, and stifles political dissent
(Forms of Terrorism) Environmental
violence in an effort to slow down developers who they believe are threatening the environment or harming animals
Motivations of Terrorists
no single personality trait, some hold extreme ideologies and schooling, people who engage in state-sponsored terrorism are highly susceptible to unquestioning submission to authority
involves people taking something that was temporarily entrusted to them, ex. bank tellers stealing money for themselves
pro theives. involves planning and risk. Size up value of crime and balance it against risks. Learn from other pros.
steal cars to supplement income, work alone, start younger, more likely to repeat offenses
Reasons people commit arson
malicious burning of a home or thing. burn commerical buildings for profit. Onwers of commerical buildings may resort to arson to get rid of outdated inventory, to qualify for government redevelopment funds, to collect insurance, to claim loss of merchandise already sold, or to eliminate compeition