What is Normandy?
region of land which consisted of part of western France across the English Channel; it was ruled by the Viking or Norsemen
Who was William the Conqueror?
a descendant of the Vikings and also the cousin of King Edward of England. He defeated King Harold Godwinson and became King of England
What is a grand jury?
jury that decides whether people should be accused of a crime
What is a trial jury?
a jury that decides whether an accused person was innocent or guilty
Who was Philip II?
the king of France who went to war against England and captured much of their territory. As a result, France gained more land and became more powerful
Who was Ivan III?
helped Russia become a great empire; he built up the Kremlin in Moscow; ended Mongol rule over Moscow's territory;
Who started calling themselves a czar?
Ivan III or Ivan the Great
Who was Henry II?
he increased the power of the English king; he used the courts to increase his power; he established common law
What is common law?
law that is the same throughout the whole kingdom
What is Kiev?
a Russian state that was really a group of small territories; created by a Viking leader named Oleg
Where is Moscow?
located at the crossroads of several important trade routes.
Who was King John?
raised taxes in England and punished his enemies without trials; he created the Magna Carta which was a document of rights; he introduced Habeas corpus which protected a person from being in prison forever without a trial
Who was Saladin?
a Muslim who became ruler of Egypt and captured Jerusalem; declared war against the Christians
What are clergy?
people who had been ordained as priests