This age group is most susceptible to violence AND most likely to commit violent acts
Most common cause of violent acts when perpetrator is known
Most common circumstance of murder when cause is known
Most commonly used murder weapon
Gender more likely to commit murder, and be murdered
Aggression that is calculated, predatory, instrumental
Aggression that is reactive, defensive, autonomic arousal
L orbitofrontal, R Ant Cingulate, B Ant Temporal
Regions of brain associated with anger in normal individuals
PFC, S Parietal, L angular, Corpus callosum
Regions of decreased glucose metabolism in murderers
Amygdala, Thalamus, R Medial Temporal
Regions of asymmetric activity in murderers
Head injuries, EEG, Seizure, Neurological soft signs
Possible neurological findings in aggression
Low levels of this neurotransmitter can cause impulsive aggression, in the most widely accepted theory
High levels of this neurotransmitter may cause predatory aggression
High levels of this neurotransmitter have an inhibitory effect on aggression
Low levels of this neurotransmitter can cause both impulsive and episodic aggression
High levels of this neurotransmitter cause aggression in animals, but not in humans
High levels of this hormone are associated with aggression in men, but not women
Genotype that predicts increased violence in males, but not females
Genotype that predicts no increase in violence in both males and females
Genotype that predicts normal amygdala and cingulate volume
Genotype that predicts decreased amygdala and cingulate volume
Go / Nogo
Experiment designed to test information processing differences in inhibition of behavior in normal vs aggressive subjects
CNS depressant that increased risk of violence by 12 times
Stimulants, hallucinogens, sedative hypnotics,m opiates, anticholinergics, steroids
Other drugs that increase the risk of aggression
Primary parental contribution (or lack thereof) that leads to aggressive behavior
Parental contribution that increases risk of kids with low MAOA to developing violence
Social skills training
Treatment intended to improve communication and teaches alternative behaviors to violence
Treatment involving problem solving, recognition of feelings, anger management, and understanding
Treatment that rewards desirable actions to reinforce the good
Drug class to decrease limbic activation and increase prefrontal control
Drug class to calm patients in acute aggression
Drug used for managing not just bipolar aggression, but normal aggression as well
Drug class that works to reduce aggression whether or not the patient has a seizure
Drug class that improves behavior in ADHD patients
Critical age of onset of ADHD (where symptoms must occur before)
Typical age of onset in ADHD
Prevalence of ADHD in typical population (percentage)
Hyperactivity, impulsive, inattention
The critical components that make up a diagnosis of ADHD
DDx for ADHD that features motor and vocal tics
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Similar disorder to ADHD, but characterized by impulsive, inattentive behavior with authority challenge
Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Deficits in learning and social skills that is confused with ADHD
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
The most common co-morbid condition with ADHD
The use of this substance in the treatment of ADHD may reduce substance abuse
(Maternal) smoking, alcohol
Pre/perinatal risk factors that dramatically increase the risk for ADHD
"Risk factors" that are NOT implicated in ADHD
Key brain region (collection) that is responsible for ADHD
Neurotransmitter responsible for inhibitory activity on striatal structures implicated in ADHD
Neurotransmitter responsible for striatal output, excess of which is implicated in ADHD
Drug class that can be useful for impulsivity and inattention, but has risk of sedation and hypotension
Current drug class under FDA review for ADHD
Otitis media (Ear infection)
Important differential to rule out for a diagnosis of ADHD; commonly performed by school nurses
A 6-year old male presents with poor language development and lack of symbolic play, occuring before the age of 3. Physical exam revealed lack of eye contact, peer relationships, or social reciprocity; failure to sustain conversation; and repetitive nonfunctional motor movements. What is the most likely diagnosis?
This relatively rare autism-like disorder occurs only in females, and is characterized by autistic symptoms including hand wringing.
This disorder is characterized by a chromosome 15q partial deletion, commonly presenting with mental retardation and insatiable appetite.
This disorder is caused by deletion of genes in maternal chromosome 15, characterized by sleep disturbances, seizures, and puppet-like movements.
This trisomy is commonly associated with mild mental retardation.
This monosomy is typically NOT associated with mental retardation.
This disease, causing congenital cataracts and encephalitis, can lead to mental retardation, and is preventable by vaccine.
This lysosomal storage disease caused by the buildup of glycosaminoglycans can cause progressive deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, dwarfism, and mental retardation.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
A lifelong disorder that accounts for 5% of all birth defects, leading to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders, and is completely preventable.
A drug class that is sometimes used off-label for the management of autism.
A drug class that is used for mood-related disorders occuring with autism.
Affective flattening, alogia, avolition, anhedonia, attention impairment
The "5 A's" that are negative symptoms of psychosis
Psychosis occurring with delusions, hostile belligerance, grandiose behavior, and hallucinations
Psychosis occurring with disorientation and incoherent language, sometimes with excitement
Psychosis occurring with retardation and apathy, and anxious self punishment/blame
Behavior characterized by immobility, resistance to movement, mutism, and stereotypy
Delusions e.x "the government is out to get me"
Delusions e.x "I'm the king of the world"
Delusions e.x "I'm the Messiah"
Delusions e.x "Paris Hilton loves me"
Delusions e.x "There are worms in my stomach"
(Delusions of) Reference
Delusions e.x "That chair is trying to tell me something"
(Delusions of) Thought Control
Delusions e.x "Someone is trying to read my mind"
Delusions, hallucinations, and distortions fall into this category of symptoms
Blunted affect, social withdrawal, passivity, lack of spontaneity fall into this category of symptoms
Schizophrenia-like disorder with an onset between 1 and 6 months
Brief psychotic disorder
Schizophrenia-like disorder with an onset that is short term (1 month)
Schizophrenia-like disorder co-morbid with something like MDD
This gender typically has an earlier onset of schizophrenia.
Positive symptoms are explained by an excess of dopamine acting on this pathway.
This pathway connects the ventral tegmental area with the amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens
Negative symptoms are explained by an decrease of dopamine acting on this pathway.
This pathway connects the ventral tegmental area with the cerebral cortex.
LSD may affect the levels of this neurotransmitter in the brain.
PCP may affect the levels of this neurotransmitter in the brain.
Benzodiazepines may improve schizophrenia by modulating the levels of this neurotransmitter.
Theory that chronic stimulation of neurons could lead to neuro-degeneration and eventally apoptosis.
This hypothesis explains the preponderance of schizophrenia in babies born over the winter months.
This hypothesis explains the role of excitotoxicity in the development of schizophrenia.
Tubular infundibulum (pathway)
Removal of dopamine may interfere with inhibition of prolactin release by this pathway, leading to gynecomastia.