Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called _______.
There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.
Fred's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as ________.
In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as _________.
possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger systems include ________.
It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.
Thyroxine is a peptide hormone but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormons. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?
the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ___________.
entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene.
Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.
production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty.
entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei.
Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by ________.
it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is NOT a true endocrine gland because ________.
binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.
Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?
hypophyseal portal system
Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary glad is through the _________.
Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the _______.
One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?
targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________.
Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular _______.
When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is _________.