CHAPTER 12 -- COMMUNICATING IN THE INTERNET AGE

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THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

Communication:
The interpersonal _______ of information and understanding from one person to another
- A linked social process of sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback

transfer

THE BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESS
sender --> encode --> medium --> decode --> receiver --> feedback

sender: idea, perception

encode: to be a good communicator, you first have to _______ the person you're communicating to

medium: phone, text, face to face

decode: translating it into ______

receiver: understanding, perception

feedback: acknowledgement of ______

understand, meaning, acceptance

SELECTING A MEDIUM

Moving between ____- and ____-context cultures can create appropriate media selection problems.

- In low-context cultures (AMERICA), the verbal content of the message is more important than the medium through which it is delivered.
- In high-context cultures (JAPAN), the context (setting) in which the message is delivered is more important than the literal words of the message.

low, high

A CONTINGENCY APPROACH (LENGEL AND DAFT)

Media _______ : A given medium's capacity to convey information and promote learning

Characteristics of rich mediums:
- Provide simultaneous _______ information cues
- Facilitate _______ feedback
- Have a _______ focus

Characteristics of lean mediums:
- Convey limited information (few cues)
- Provide no immediate feedback
- Impersonal by nature

richness, multiple, immediate, personal

DECODING

Successful decoding depends on the receiver having:
- A _______ to receive the message
- _______ of the language and terminology used in the message
- An understanding of the sender's _______ and background situation

willingness, knowledge, purpose

FEEDBACK

The choice factors for the form to provide feedback are the same factors governing the encoding process.

Feedback affects the form and content of follow-up communication.

Effective feedback is _______ , _______ , and _______ .

timely, relevant, personal

NOISE

- any _______ with the normal flow of communication.
- Understanding _______ as noise increases.
- To deal with noise:
- Make messages more understandable.
- Minimize and neutralize sources of interference.

interference, decreases

COMMUNICATING
STRATEGIES

____& ____:
Impersonal and one-way communications (lectures)

____& ____:
A restricted set of messages with explanations for their importance and relevance

____& ____:
Information and issues that are keys to organizational success are discussed and explained.

____& ____:
Responding to employee concerns about prior organizational communications

____& ____:
Telling employees only what they need to know when you think they need to know it

spray, pay, tell, sell, underscore, explore, identify, replay, withhold, uphold

COMMUNICATING STRATEGIES

Seeking a middle-ground Communication Strategy:
- Avoid Spray & Pray and Withhold & Uphold.
- Use Tell & Sell and Identify & Reply sparingly.
- Use ____& ____as much as possible.

Merging Communication Strategies and Media Richness:
- Managers need to select the richest medium possible when employing Tell & Sell, Identify & Reply, and Underscore & Explore strategies.
communication strategy:

underscore, explore

THE GRAPEVINE

The grapevine is the unofficial and _____ communication system in an organization.

Words of Caution About the E-Grapevine and "Blogs":
- Web logs ("blogs," or online diaries) vastly and instantly extend the reach of the grapevine.
- Writers of blogs and senders of e-gossip leave electronic trails that may prove embarrassing or worse at a later date.

Managerial Attitudes Toward the Grapevine:
-Managers have predominately negative feelings about the grapevine.
-The grapevine is more prevalent at lower levels of the managerial hierarchy.
-The grapevine is likely to be more influential in larger organizations.
-The grapevine can help managers learn how employees truly feel about policies and programs.

DOESN'T HAVE A GRAPEVINE


Coping with the Grapevine:
- The grapevine cannot be extinguished.
- Attempts to stifle the grapevine are likely to stimulate it instead.
- Monitoring and officially _____ grapevine information is perhaps the best strategy for coping with the grapevine.

informal, correcting

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

Body Language:
Nonverbal communication based on facial expressions, posture, and appearance

Types of Body Language:
_____
_____
_____

Receiving Nonverbal Communication:
Awareness of nonverbal cues can give insight into deep-seated emotions.

Giving Nonverbal Feedback:
- Nonverbal feedback from authority figures significantly affects employee behavior.
- Positive feedback builds good interpersonal relations.
- Sensitivity and cross-cultural training can reduce nonverbal errors when working with individuals from other cultures.

facial, gestural, postural,

UPWARD COMMUNICATION

The process of encouraging employees to share their feelings and ideas with _____ .

Options for improving upward communication:
-Formal grievance procedures (_____)
-Employee attitude and opinion surveys
-Suggestion systems
-Open-door policy
-Informal meetings
-Internet chat rooms
-Exit interviews

management, union

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

_____ Barriers:
Misinterpretation of the meaning of words and phrases by individuals
- Specialized occupational languages can create communication problems with outsiders.

_____ Barriers:
Differing backgrounds, perceptions, values, biases, needs, and expectations of individuals can block communications.

Sexist and Racist Communication:
Progressive and ethical managers are weeding sexist and racist language out of their vocabularies and correspondence to eliminate the demeaning of women and racial minorities.

semantic, psychosocial

COMMUNICATING IN THE ONLINE WORKPLACE

Getting a Handle on E-Mail and Instant Messaging:
- Put short messages in the subject line.
- Be sparse with graphics and attachments.

Hello! Can We Talk Cell Phone Etiquette?:
- Advantages = mobility and convenience
- Disadvantages = distracted drivers and disturbing calls in public places, with the risk of disclosing private information

Videoconferences:
- A live television exchange between people in different locations
- Can reduce costly and possibly dangerous travel time

_____ :
- Sending work to and from one's office via a computer modem while working at home

telecommuting

BECOMING A BETTER COMMUNICATOR

to be a food communicator - we have to be a good _______

effective ______ & effective _____

listener, listening, writing

BECOMING A BETTER COMMUNICATOR

Purposes of Meetings:
Find _____
Solve _____
Pass along _____

Categories of Meetings:
Daily check-in
Weekly tactical
Monthly strategic
Quarterly off-site

Conducting Meetings:
Meet for a specific purpose.
Distribute the agenda in advance of the meeting.
Communicate preparation expectations to attendees.
Limit attendance to essential personnel.
Open with a brief overview; review important items first.
Encourage participation but keep to the agenda.
Limit use of visual aids.
Clarify after-meeting action items.
Follow a specific start and end time and follow up.

facts, problems, information

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