hist110a - world civilizations - middle east and islam

25 terms by galadriel

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Bedouins

Nomadic Arabs from the northern peninsula.

sheikh

Ruling member of a Bedouin tribe, selected by the majlis.

majlis

Council of elders of a Bedouin tribe.

Muhammad

Founder of Islam, united Arab world.

hejira

The flight of early Muslims from Mecca to Medina in 622.

Islam/Muslim

Religion founded by Muhammed in the sixth century. Became a world religion, dominating the Arab world.

umma

Muslim community

Koran

Muslim holy book. Complied after Muhammed's death

5 Pillars

1. Confess there is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his prophet.
2. Pray five times daily facing the Ka'bah in Mecca.
3. Fast, particularly during the month of Ramadan.
4. Give alms and charity.
5. Make a pilgrimage to Mecca.

Shari'a

The "way" or "path." Muslim code of conduct

caliph

"Successor" or leader of the Islamic community. Also considered to to be the imam, or religious leader.

Ali

Muhammed's son-in-law and cousin. Was assassinated in 661, inspiring the Shi'ite faction.

Muawiya

Replaced Ali upon his assassination. Made the caliphate hereditary, founding the Umayyad dynasty.

Sunni/Shi'ite

Sunni. "Orthodox." Larger branch of Islam today.
Shi'ite. "Partisans of Ali." Anticipate the Occultation.

Umayyads

Muslim dynasty founded by Muawiya. Called "more political than pious."

Yarmuk

Battle in which the Muslims defeated the Byzantine army in 636.

Abbasids

Overthrew the Umayyad dynasty. Brought political, economic, cultural changes. Tried to break distinctions between Arab and non-Arab Muslims.

Harun al-Rashid

Greatest Abbasid caliph. Called "the Upright." Rule known as the Golden Age of economic and educational prosperity.

Seljuk Turks

Nomadic converts to Islam. Mercenaries for the Abbasid dynasty. Captured Baghdad and occupied the eastern part of the Abbasid empire.

Crusades

Christian invasions of Islamic land in an attempt to "reclaim" the Holy Land.

House of Wisdom

Arabic library in Baghdad.

Arabian Nights

Collection of Arabic tales by Omar Khayyam.

Omar Khayyam

Arabic poet and storyteller in the twelfth century. Exhibited modern-like skepticism.

Ibn Sina

Arabic physician and philosopher who proposed that the world operates on natural laws.

Sufism

Islamic mysticism embraced by thirteenth-century poet Rumi. Dervishes twirl to attain God through ecstatic love.

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