Site of first African civilization. Branched off of Saba (queen of Sheba.)
First African civilization. Modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea.
East African coast.
First great African commercial state. Flourished between the Sahara and the West African coast. Traded in gold and later ivory, hides, feathers, and slaves.
Second great African commercial state. Flourished between the Atlantic and the Niger River. Also traded in gold, but supported many sorghum, millet, and rice farmers. One of their mansas, Mansa Musa, Imported Islam.
Famous West African epic, passed down through oral tradition. Relates heroic exploits of Son-Jara, founder and ruler of Mali's empire.
Mali's ruler. Imported Islam, increased learning.
Custom of firstborn inheritance, to the exclusion of younger siblings.
Last great African commercial state. Fell apart mostly after Sonni Ali's death.
Founder of Songhai. Seized Timbuktu from Berbers and sought to restore the empire.
Tried to sustain Songhai, revive learning, and centralize authority. Had less success; however, did increase trans-Saharan trade in salt and gold.
Battle at which the Moroccans defeated Songhai.