Acids and Bases Test

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54 terms

active metals

acids generally release H2 gas when they react with

acids to produce salts and water

bases react with

conduct electric current

aqueous solutions of bases

HBr

Which is a binary acid?

HClO2

Which is chlorous acid?

suffix -ate

an acid ending with the suffix -ic produces anion with the

Arrhenius

the traditional definition of acids is based on the observations of

they increase the concentration of hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

Which statement about Arrhenius acids is false?

H2SO4

Which is a strong acid?

H2SO4

Which is a diprotic acid?

proton donor

a Bronsted-Lowry acid is a(n)

conjugate base

a species that remains when an acid has lost a proton is a

two

How many conjugate acid-base pairs participate in a Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction?

Bronsted-Lowry

Whose theory of acids and bases do conjugate acids and bases belong to?

proton

the 2 members of a conjugate acid-base pair differ by a

CH3COOH

in the reaction represented by the equation CH3COOH + H2O --> <-- H3O + CH3COO, the conjugate acid of CH3COO is

OH

in the reaction represented by the equation NH3 + H2O --> <-- NH4 + OH, the conjugate base of water is

weak base

the conjugate of a strong acid is a

strong base

the conjugate of a weak acid is a

weak base

in the equation HI + H2O --> H3O + I, HI is a strong acid and I is a

strong acid

in the equation CH3COOH + H2O --> <-- H3O + CH3COO, H2O is a weak base and H3O is a

amphoteric substance

a species that can react as either an acid or a base is a(n)

H+

Which is amphoteric?

base

in the reaction represented by the equation H3PO4 + H2O --> <-- H3O + H2PO4, the molecule H2O acts as a(n)

NaOH and RbOH

which are strong bases?

binary acid

an acid that contains only 2 different elements

oxyacid

an acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a 3rd element (usually a nonmetal)

Arrhenius acid

a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in aq. solution

Arrhenius base

a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) in aq. solution

strong acid

an acid that ionizes completely in aq. solution

weak acid

an acid that releases few H+ in aq. solution

Bronsted-Lowry acid

a proton donor

Bronsted-Lowry base

a proton acceptor

Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction

protons are transferred from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base)

monoprotic acid

an acid that can donate only 1 proton (H+) per molecule

polyprotic acid

an acid that can donate more than 1 proton (H+) per molecule

Lewis acid

an atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond

Lew base

an atom, ion, or molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond

Lewis acid-base reaction

the formation of 1 or more covalent bonds b/w an electron-pair donor and an electron-pair acceptor

conjugate acid

the species that is formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton

neutralization reactions

acidic and basic compounds react, neutralizing the other

neutralization

the reaction of hydronium ions and OH- to form water molecules

salt

an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base an an anion from an acid

self-ionization of water

2 water molecules produce a hydronium ion and a OH- by a transfer of a proton

pH

the negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration, [H3O+]

pOH

the negative of the common logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH-]

acid-base indicators

compounds whose colors are sensitive to pH

transition interval

the pH range over which an indicator changes color

pH meter

determines the pH of a solution by measuring the voltage b/w 2 electrodes that are placed in the solution

titration

using a solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of an unknown solution

equivalence point

the point when there are equal molar amounts of acid and base

end point

the point in a titration at which an indicator changes color

standard solution

solution of known concentration

primary solution

a highly purified solid compound used to check the concentration of the known solution

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