Rubenstein Chapter 13 Urban Pattern Vocabulary

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Vocab review for a thoroughly boring chapter.

Urbanization

Process by which the population of cities grows. It increases in number of people living in cities as well as increase in percentage.

Urbanized Area

The central city and surrounding suburbs. Consists of a central city plus its contiguous built up suburbs where population density exceeds 1,000 persons per square mile. 60% of the US population reside in an urbanized area.

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)

US Bureau of the Census' method of measuring the functional area of a city. It includes: 1.) central city with a population of at least 50,000. 2.)The county within which the city is located. 3.) Adjacent counties with a high population density and a large percentage of residents working in the central city's county.

Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Data (CMSA)

Two adjacent MSAs with overlapping commuting patterns are combined into this. An example is New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island.

Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA)

Within a CMSA, an MSA that exceeds 1 million in population is classified as this.

Concentric Zone Model

Created in 1923 by E.W. Burgess that explains the distribution of different social groups within urban areas. According to the model, a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings. The innermost ring is the CBD, where nonresidential activities occur. The second ring is the zone in transition where industry and lower quality housing is located. The third is working class homes and the fourth is newer, more spacious homes. The last zone is the commuters' zone .

Sector Model

Created in 1939 by Homer Hoyt, this model was yet another to explain urban structure. Unlike it's predecessor, Hoyt stated that a city develops in a series of sectors, not rings. Certain areas of a city are more attractive because of various activities and environments. When a city grows, its activities and sectors expand in a wedge. When a district with high-class housing is established, more expensive housing is then built on the outer edge of that sector. Thus the better housing is located in a corridor extending from the outer edge of the city.

Multiple Nuclei Model

In 1945, Harris and Ullman developed this model as another means to explain the structure of a city. It said that a city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve. An example of one of these nodes are an airport or business centre. The theory also stated some activities are attracted to a particular node while others avoid them.

Census tract

Urban areas in the US are divided into these. They contain about 5,000 residents and correspond to neighborhood boundaries. Every decade, the US Census Bureau publishes researched data summarizing all characteristics of residents living in each tract.

Squatter Settlements

These are initiated by a group of people who move together onto land outside that city that is owned either by a private individual or by the government. Leaders of the group distribute land to each family. They are made of wood boxes, cardboard, and crushed beverage cans. They have no services because their denizens cannot afford them.

Filtering

Process of subudividing homes in which waves of occupancy contiunously go to lower income families until the structure is abandoned.

Redlining

The process of drawing lines on a map to identify areas in which banks will not loan money. Therefore, an area will not be improved.

Urban Renewal

Cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the sites, and build new roads and utilities. The land is then turned over to private developers or to public agencies, such as the board of education.

Public Housing

Housing is reserved for low-income households who must pay 30% of their income for rent. A housing authority manages the buildings and the federal government pays the cost of construction and the maintenance, repair, and management not covered by rent. In the United States, it only accounts for 2 percent.

Gentrification

Process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate housing. These neighborhoods also attract middle-class individuals who work downtown.

Underclass

Inner-city residents are often refered to this because they are trapped in an endless loop of economic and social problems. They suffer from illteracy, drug addiction, unemploment, and crime.

Annexation

The process of legally adding land area to a city. Today, people are less likely to vote for annexation because people prefer to provide their own services rather than pay taxes.

Peripheral Model

According to this model, an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road. These areas lack the severe physical, social, and economic problems of inner-city neighborhoods.

Edge City

Around the beltway are nodes of consumer and business services are called this. They originated in suburban residences for people who worked in the central city, and then shopping malls were built for residents. Now these contain manufacturing centres. Specialized nodes also appear in these (i.e. airport, large theme park)

Density gradient

Density change in an urban area. The number of houses per unit of land diminishes as distance from the center city increases.

Sprawl

The progressive spread of development over the landscape. When developers seek new land, they often look for cheap, uninhabited land that can easily be prepared for construction.

Green Belt

Rings of open space where new housing is either built in pre-existing suburbs within the greenbelt or in planned extensions to small towns or new towns beyond the green belt. An example is London.

Zoning ordinances

These prevented a mixture of land uses within the same district because it was considered unhealthy or inefficient.

Rush hour

Peak hours of the day, the 15 minute periods that have the heaviest traffic.

Council of government

A coopertive agency consisting of representatives of the various local governments in the region. It maybe empowered to do some overall planning for the area that local governments cannot logically do.

Smarth growth

Legislations and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and perserve farmland. Maryland has enacted strong types of legislation. It prohibited the state from funding new highways and other projects that would extend suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.

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