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Name the 4 organs of the urinary system

Kidneys, uterus, urinary bladder, uretha

The kidneys are held in place by the...

adipose capsule

Backup of urine into the kidneys is called...

hyenephrosis

Abnormally low urine output of 100 ml to 400 ml/ day is called

oliguria

The pigment that gives urine its color

Urachrome

The triangular region of the bladder that is outlined by two openings of the urter and uretha is called...

trigone

Urinary bladder infection is called...

cysistis

Name the 4 functions of the kidney

make urine, convert vitamin D 2 arrive form, dispose waste, regulate blood&volume

Each kidney contains about _nephrons.

1 million

What is the function of a nephron?

Forms and filters urine

Provide the pathway of the arterial blood supply through the kidney

renal artery-segmental-lobular-interlobular-dicutate-interlobular-afferent artiel-glomulus-efferent-peritebral-interlobular-articulate-interior vena cava-renal vein

Is blood pressure in the glomerulus high or low?

High

Give 4 characteristics of normal urine

sterile, more dense than water, smells slightly, contains ammonia

What is the gravity of normal urine?

1.001-1.005

A noninvasvive treatment of kidney stones is

lithotripy

Why is the bladder able to expand?

It has transitional epithelium

How much urine is the bladder usually full with?

500ml

The voluntary sphincter associated with the uretha is the...

external uretha sphincter

Describe 4 symptoms of a typical urinary infection

dysuria, urgency, frequency, cloudy urine

What is the enlargement of the prostate gland called?

hypertrophy

How many liters of blood plasma does the kidney process in 24 hrs?

150-180 L

Name the 4 major roles of the kidney

Rid of nitrogenus waste, maintain water and electrolyte balance, manage pH of blood

How much of a healthy young adult weight is water weight?

1/2

The hormone that acts on the kidney to regulate sodium ion in the EFC is what?

aldosterone

What percent of sodium is reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?

80%

What is a polycystic kidney condition?

degenerative, blisters or sacs with urine

What is the average output of urine per day for adults?

150 ml/day

What is the most common urinary tract infection?

E. Coli

Name the functions of the bladder, uretha, renal artery, and ureter

Stores Urine- Bladder
Transport urine to body exterior and is shorter in females- uretha
Transport arterial blood to kidney- renal artery
Transport urine to the urinary bladder- ureter

Describe these terms: cortex, medulla, calyx, renal capsule, renal column and renal pelvis

Renal capsule- smooth membrane clinging tightly to the kidney surface
Medulla- portion of kidney containing mostly collecting ducts
Cortex- portion of the kidney containing the bulk of the nephron structures and superficial region of kidney tissue
Renal pelvis- basinlike area of the kidney, continuous w/ ureter
Calyx- an extension of the pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid
Renal column- area of cortexlike tissue running between the medullary pyramids

Describe these 4 parts: glomulus, proximal convuluted tubule, collective duct, parietal capillaries, and glomerus

Glomulus- site of filtration
Proximal convuluted tubule- primary site of tubular reabsorption
Collective duct- structure that conveys the filtered urine to the renal pelvis
Parietal capillaries- blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells
Glomerus- inner membrane that forms part of the filtration membrane

Why is the glomerus such a high pressure capillary bed?

Blood that enters into a longer tube, and as it goes down, tube gets smaller, creating high pressure

How does high pressure condition aid its function of filtrate formation?

leaves proteins and sugars

What structural modification of certain tubule cells enhance their ability to reabsorb substances from the filtrate?

podocytes

Trace the anatomical pathway of a creatinine molecule from the glomular capsule to the urethra

glomerular capsule-proximial convuluted tuble-Loop of Henli-ducts- renal cortex- medullary pyramid- calyces- renal pelvis- ureter- bladder

List 3 nitrogenus wastes that are routinely found in urine

urea, uric acid, reatrine

List 3 substances that are absent from the filtrate and urine of healthy adults

blood, proteins, sugars, bile

List 2 substances that are routinely found in filtrate but not in urine product

amino acids and glucose

How does a urinary tract infection influence urine ph?

bacteria makes ph higher= basic urine

How does starvation influence urine ph?

urine becomes acidic because your body is breaking down amino acids

State these abnormal urine conditions: blood in urine, hemolytic anemia, eating too much candy in one sitting, pregnancy, starvation, urinary tract infection

blood in urine- hematuria
hemolytic anemia- hemoglobinuria
Too much candy in one sitting- glycosuria
Pregnancy- albuminuria
Starvation- ketonuria
Urinary Tract infection- pyuria

What conditions favor kidney stones?

alkine urine and higher concentration of solutes

Why does urine become alkaline and cloudy standing at room temp?

Bacteria comes and breaks down urea for ammonia

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