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The antigens that provoke hypersensitivity reactions are referred to as

Allergens

Which of the following allergens is not likely to be encountered through inhalation?

Metals

Which of the following are matched correctly?

Type 1 hypersensitivity: IgE
type 2 hypersensitivity: IgG
Type 3 hypersensitivity: immune complexes
Type 4 hypersensitivity: delayed-type hypersensitivity

Which of the following are associated with soluble antigen?

Type 1 hypersensitivity, type 3 hypersensitivity, type 4 hypersensitivity, and mast-cell activation

An example of type 3 hypersensitivity is..

Serum sickness

An allergic reaction to poison ivy is associated with

Cytotoxic T-cell activation

Which of the following distinguishes IgE from the other antibody isotypes?

IgE binds to Fcε receptors in the absence of antigen.

_____ express FcεRI and contain granules containing inflammatory mediators.

Activated eosinophiles, mast cells, and basophils

Aspirin (acetyl salicylate) inhibits prostaglandin synthesis by binding irreversibly to prostaglandin synthase, the first enzyme in the _____ pathway.

Cyclooxygenase

Which of the following is associated with hypereosinophilia?

IL-5-induced proliferation, endocardium damage, and neuropathy

Inhaled allergens posses which of the following features that promote the priming of TH2 cells that drive IgE responses?

They are proteins, many are proteases, and they are highly soluble

Which of the following genetic polymorphisms is associated with a predisposition to asthma?

HLA class 2 allotypes, β2-adrenergic receptor variant, and promoter variants of 5-lipoxygenase gene

The wheal and flare inflammatory reaction is an example of

an immediate type 1 allergic response

The _____ occurs 6-8 hours after an initial type I allergic response in which mast cells produce leukotrienes, chemokines, and cytokines.

Late-phase reaction

Which of the following tests is used to determine whether a particular allergen is responsible for asthma?

Measure peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) after inhalation of allergen

Systemic anaphylaxis is caused by the presence of allergen in _____.

The circulation

Which of the following are consequences of anaphylactic shock?

Smooth muscle contraction, loss of blood pressure, and constriction of airways

Which of the following are correct matches between a hypersensitivity reaction and the underlying cause?

Wheal and flare: subcutaneous intro of insect allergen
Urticaria: ingestion of shellfish allergen
Arthritis: immune complex deposition in joint spaces

During the course of a successful desensitization process, the patient's antibodies will change from an _____isotype to an _____ isotype.

IgE: IgG4

Which of the following are potential means by which type I allergic reactions can be managed or treated?

Use antihistamines to block histamine binding to H1 histamine receptors.
Use corticosteroids to suppress inflammation.
Anergize allergen-specific T cells through vaccination with allergen-derived peptides.
Block high-affinitiy IgE receptors to prevent mast-cell degranulation.

Which of the following antigens must be compatible between a donor and a recipient of a blood transfusion?

Rh

What is the name of the clinical test used to determine the compatibility between a donor and recipient requiring a blood transfusion?

Cross-match test

_____ is associated with a type III hypersensitivity reaction.

Formation of small immune complexes that are deposited in blood vessel walls.
Complement fixation.
Hemorrhaging.

Which of the following can induce a type III hypersensitivity reaction?

Penicillin, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, streptokinase, and mold spores

Which of the following can induce a type IV hypersensitivity reaction?

Gliadin, tuberculin, lepromin, and pentadecacatechol

Which of the following is associated with an immune response towards poison ivy?

Contact sensitivity, highly reactive lipid-like molecule forms covalent bonds with host proteins, and CD8 T-cell epitopes

Which of the following is characterized by intestinal atrophy, HLA-DQ2 or DQ8 gluten-derived peptide complexes, and anti-transglutaminase autoantibodies?

Celiac disease

Hypersensitivity reactions to carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug used by epileptics, is correlated with _____.

A risk of developing Stevens-johnson syndrome (SJS), and HLA class 1 allotype HLA-B*1502

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