nostrils which open into the nasal cavity; where air enters the respiratory system.
the cavity behind the nose and above the roof of the mouth that filters air and moves mucous and inhaled contaminants outward and away form the lungs.
small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate, named for its grape-like shape
Connects the nasal cavity with the rest of the pharynx. Behind the soft palate.
the mouth and the vestibule, or the opening to the throat
central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and the esophagus
muscular tube at the end of the gastrovascular cavity, or throat, that connects the mouth with the rest of the digestive tract and serves as a passageway for air and food
a flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering
membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi
Right vs left lung
a. Right lung has 3 lobes
i. Has superior, middle, and inferior
b. Left lobe has only 2 lobes
i. Has superior and inferior due to where heart sits the middle lobe did not form
c. 2 fissures on right side
i. Oblique fissure
1. Divides superior and middle from inferior
ii. Horizontal fissure
1. Divides superior and middle
d. Only one fissure on left side
branched airways that lead from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down
the area of the throat that contains the vocal cords and produces vocal sounds
which are folds of connective tissue that produce your voice, strech across the opening of the larynx
the outer layer of the pleura that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm, and forms the sac containing each lung
potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
the serous membrane on the outer surface of each lung
tiny air sac at the end of a bronchiole in the lungs that provides surface area for gas exchange to occur
Contains deoxygenated blood coming from right side of heart [systemic circulation]
Contains oxygenated blood from lung capillaries, transports to left side of heart into systemic
part of the respiratory system; move air in and out of lungs; includes diaphragm and intercostal muscles
pressure within the lung tissue; is subatmospheric at rest and during inhalation
pressure w/in pleural cavity (outside alveoli)
generally 4mmHg less than pressure in alveoli
fluctuates with phase of breath
abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.
the rate at which a certain volume of gas flows through the bronchial airways is a function of the pressure gradient and the resistance created by the airways to the flow of gas
Normal values are 0.5 to 1.5cm H2O/L/sec
chronic respiratory disease in which the air passageways become narrower than normal
a lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension in the alveoli, reduces the amount of pressure needed to inflate the alveoli, and decreases the tendency of the alveoli to collapse.
Infant respiratory distress syndrome: because surfactant is one of the last things to form in the prenatal infant, a rather common cause of death fir infants born early is this disease, which results in babies having too much pressure on alveolar sacs and not being able to breath.
measure of the lung's stretchability, abnorm high=prone to collapse, abnorm low=work of breathing increased
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange
Amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breath
Inspiratory reserve volume
Amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort:
Expiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
The amount of air that remains in the lungs after a person exhales as forcefully as he or she can
the total amount of air that a person can exhale after taking as deep a breath as possible
States that the total pressure of a mixture of gasses is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases in the mixture.
The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body
Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
The relationship between oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) and the arterial oxygen tension (PaO2); If oxyge binds too loosely--may give up O2 before reaching tissues; Binds too tightly--may not transfer O2 at all
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
the compound formed when carbon dioxide combines with hemoglobin
enzyme that catalyzes reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid
Dorsal respiratory group
responsible for basic rhythm of breathing; emit bursts of impulses that signal the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles to contract; function in every respiratory cycle; part of medullary rhythmicity area; neurons are inactive during expiration, which occurs passively
Ventral respiratory group
respiratory rhythm center located in the brainstem that has both inspiratory and expiratory neurons. It becomes active and stimulates accessory muscles when an increase in ventilatory effort is necessary
Pulmonary irritant reflexes
-receptors fire signals to vagus nerve afferents
-promotes reflex constriction
-if irritants in nose->sneeze reflex
-in trachea or bronchi->cough reflex
This reflex is initiated by the inflation of the lungs (prevents over inflation of the lungs) and functions to terminate inspiration.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; chronic bronchitis - bronchiole lining inflamed, excess mucus formed; emphysema - walls of alveoli break down; HYPOXIC DRIVE (not in asthma)
Infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchial tubes.