General procedural considerations

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Angulation of the central ray may be required

1. to avoid superimposition of overlying structures.
2. to avoid foreshortening or self-superimposition.
3. to project through certain articulations.

The body habitus characterized by a long and narrow thoracic cavity and low, midline stomach and gallbladder is the

asthenic

The four types of body habitus describe

differences in visceral shape, position, tone, and motility

hypersthenic

very large individual with short, wide heart and lungs; high transverse stomach and gallbladder; and peripheral colon; usually demonstrate the greatest motility

sthenic

average, athletic, most predominant type

hyposthenic

somewhat thinner and a little more frail, with organs positioned somewhat lower

asthenic

smaller in the extreme, with a long thorax; a very long, almost pelvic stomach; and a low medial gallbladder. The colon is medial and redundant.

Which of the following fracture classifications describes a small bony fragment pulled from a bony process?

Avulsion fracture

avulsion fracture

a small bony fragment pulled from a bony process as a result of a forceful pull of the attached ligament or tendon.

comminuted fracture

one in which the bone is broken or splintered into pieces.

torus fracture

a greenstick fracture with one cortex buckled and the other intact

compound fracture

an open fracture in which the fractured ends have perforated the skin.

The plane that passes vertically through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior halves, is termed the

midcoronal plane

median sagittal, or midsagittal, plane

passes vertically through the midline of the body, dividing it into left and right halves.

Any plane parallel to the MSP is termed

a sagittal plane

midcoronal plane

perpendicular to the MSP and divides the body into anterior and posterior halves.

transverse plane

passes through the body at right angles to a sagittal plane.

Movement of a part toward the midline of the body is termed

adduction

Eversion

movement of the foot caused by turning the ankle outward

Inversion

foot motion caused by turning the ankle inward

Abduction

movement of a part away from the midline

The term that refers to parts closer to the source or beginning is

proximal

Cephalad

refers to that which is toward the head

caudad

that which is toward the feet

The functions of which body system include mineral homeostasis, protection, and triglyceride storage?

skeletal

Yellow bone marrow

composed mainly of fat cells and stores triglycerides for use as an energy reserve

decubitus position

used to describe the patient who is recumbent (prone, supine, or lateral) with the central ray directed horizontally.

Which of the following are characteristics of the hypersthenic body type?

1. Short, wide, transverse heart
2. High and peripheral large bowel

Which of the following positions is obtained with the patient lying prone recumbent on the radiographic table, and the central ray directed horizontally to the iliac crest?

Ventral decubitus position

AP recumbent

dorsal decubitus position

lying prone

ventral decubitus position

Which of the following devices should not be removed before positioning for a radiograph?

1. An antishock garment
2. A pneumatic splint

antishock garment

used when a patient has suffered a traumatic incident and is suffering from internal bleeding; it functions to slow the rate of bleeding.

air cast

used to temporarily support a fractured limb until surgery and/or a more permanent cast is in place

Both antishock garments and air splints are

radiolucent

The best way to control voluntary motion is

careful explanation of the procedure

Standard radiographic protocols may be reduced to include two views, at right angles to each other, in which of the following situations

Emergency and trauma radiography

Osteoblasts

cells of mesodermal origin that are concerned with formation and repair of bone.

Osteoclasts

cells concerned with the breakdown and resorption of old or dead bone

osteoma

a benign bony tumor

osteon

the microscopic unit of compact bone, consisting of a haversian canal and its surrounding lamellae.

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