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Urinary System

L&R kidneys
L&R ureter
Bladder
Urethra

Kidney Functions

-Excretion (primary): filter blood plasma - separate waste from useful chemicals
-Regulate blood volume and pressure
-Regulate osmolarity of fluids
-Secrete enzyme renin
-Secrete hormone erythropoietin
-Contribute to calcium homeostasis (synthesizes calcitrol)
-synthesize glucose in extreme starvation

Hilum

Where kidney receives renal verves, blood vessels, lymphatics and ureter

Renal Parenchyma

Glandular tissue that forms urine
Two Zones
-Renal cortex
-Renal medulla

Renal Cortex

Composed of 1.25 million nephrons
Contains glomeruli, proximal and distal tubules of nephron

Renal Medulla

Consists of 6-18 pyramids
Contains medullary nephron loops and collecting ducts

Renal Columns

Extensions of the cortex project towards sinus, divide medulla into renal pyramids

Renal Pyramids

Pyramid and overlying cortex constitute a lobe

Renal Papilla

apex of pyramid

Calyx drain

Minor calyx - Major calyx - Renal pelvis

Ureter

Continuation of renal pelvis that drains urine down to the urinary bladder

What causes flow form the kidney to bladder in the Ureter

Peristalsis

Flow of Urine from Urinary Bladder (Male)

Urinary bladder - preprostatic urethra - prostatic - membraneous urethra - Spongy urethra

Flow of Urine for Urinary Bladder (Female)

Urinary bladder - urethra

Renal Circulation

Renal A. - Segmental A. - Interlobar A. - Arcuate A. - Interlobular A. - Afferent arteriole - Glomerulus - Efferent arteriole - Peritubular capillaries or vasa recta - Interlobular V. - Arcuate V - Interlobar V. - Renal V.

Urine Formation

1. Glomerular filtration
2. Tubular re-absorption and secretion
3. Water conservation

Nephrons

-Production of filtrate
-Reabsorption of water and ions
-Reabsorption of organic nutrients
-Secretion of waste products into tubular fluid

Nephron 2 parts

Renal corpuscle
Renal tubule

Renal Corpuscle

-Filters blood plasma

Renal Corpuscle 2 main parts

-glomerular capsule
-glomerulus (ball of capillaries)

Glomerular filtration

creates plasmalike filtrate of blood
-driven by high blood pressure in glomerular capillaries
-water and small solutes removed from plasma, barriers hold back blood cells and proteins
-controlled by renal autoregulation, sympathetic nervous system control, and hormones

Tubular Reabsorbtion and Secretion

Removes useful solutes from filtrate and returns to blood; removes additional wastes from blood and adds to filtrate
-GFR in excess of rate of urine output
-99% of filtrate reabsorbed, 1-2% excreted as urine

Renal Tubule

Converts filtrate to urine

Renal Tubule 3 Parts

PCT
Nephron Loop
DCT

Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)

Reabsorbs 65% of glomerular filtrate via osmotic and co-transport mechanism with NA+
-Released into peritubular capillaries
-Transport maximum
-Tubular secretion

PCT Reabsorbs

Na+
Cl-
100% glucose
Water
Amino acids
Proteins
Vitamins and minerals

Nephron Loop

Osmotic gradient in renal medulla, necessary for collecting duct function
Reabsorbs 25% of filtrate

Nephron Loop Reabsorbs

Water
Na+
K+
Cl-

Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)

-Actively secretes ions, toxins, drugs
-Regulated by hormones
-Completes process of determining chemical concentration of urine

DCT Reabsorbs

Na+
Cl-
Water

Water Conservation

Removes water from urine and returns to blood, concentrates waste

Rate of water loss controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) via aquaporins

Cortical Nephrons

85% of all nephrons
Located in the cortex

Juxtamedullary Nephrons

-Closer to renal medulla
-Nephron loops extend deep into renal pyramids
-Responsible for salinity gradient, helps conserve water

Signs of Abnormal Pee

Foul odor
Glucose
Hemoglobin
Albumin
Ketones
Bile pigments

Foul odor in Pee

certain foods, diabetes mellitus, PKU

Glucose in Pee

Diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes

Hemoglobin in Pee

Kidney damage, heavy physical activity

Ketones in Pee

fatty-acid breakdown, poor nutrition, acute or severe illness, pregnancy

Bile pigments in Pee

possible liver disease

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