masters and johnson
found four stages of a sexual response cycle in their groundbreaking research
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
the four stages of a sexual response found by masters and johnson
biological advantage (genetic diversity), reproduction, love bonds, pleasure, spiritual enlightenment
5 reasons why humans have sex
in 1993, dr. samuel s. janus and dr. cynthia l. janus published the results of the first large-scale study of human sexual behavior since those of kinsey and colleagues masters and johnson.
1. nearly 80% of men and 70% of women said they had masturbated, with about a quarter to a third saying that it was rarely.
2. full sexual relations by age 14: men -19%, women -7.5%
3. at least one homosexual experience : 22 percent of men, 17 percent of women
4. males reporting premarital sex: 67%
5. females reporting premarital sex : 46%
6. about 40% of men and about 26% of women reported having had at least one extramarital affair.
7. about 9% of males were predominantly homosexual
8. about 5% of females were predominantly homosexual
person attracted to the same sex
one's erotic, affectional and romantic attraction to the same sex, the opposite sex, or both
t or f : you are likely to be gay if you have an older brother
t or f : gays and lesbians are more left handed
t or f : birth order with males is related to homosexuality
t or f : if you are gay you are likely to have a gay relative
new cases of STI's reported in the US each year
people with sti's between 15 and 24
affected people in the US
nickname for STI's
new cases of female infertility caused by sti's each year
cause of many genital and urinary tract infections
one of the most common sti's with 3 million cases yearly
third most common sti; can be transmitted orally, anally, or vaginally with 650,000 cases yearly
sti that causes deterioration of the immune system and eventually results in death due to complicating infections that the body can no longer fight
bacterial infection with sores that appear on or in the genital area and can spread to other body parts and the brain
sti with sores on the genital area; itching, burning, throbbing, "pins and needles" sensations where sores are about to appear
a pattern of enduring distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world
first to suggest a coherent theory of personality, motivation and psychology
believed most behavior is unconscious
believed adult personalities shape by childhood experiences
believed how we deal with sexual and aggressive urges impacts us
part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious
principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences
part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical
principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result
part of the personality that acts as a moral center
part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how acceptable behavior is
negotiator between the id and superego
five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child.
first stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict
second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict
disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage
anal expulsive personality
a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile
anal retentive personality
a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn
third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings
situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent.
fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways
the fifth stage in which the focus of sexual curiosity and attraction will become other adolescents or rock stars, movie stars, and other objects of adoration. Bodies are changing and sexual urges are once more allowed into the consciousness, but these urges will no longer have the parents as the targets.
sons to mothers
daughters to fathers
pushing away into unconscious any disruptive ideal memory
defense mechanisms are..
false but plausible explanations; making up acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior
refuses to recognize anxiety provoking event; refusal to recognize or acknowledge threatening situation
forming an emotional reaction or attitude that is the opposite of one's threatening or unacceptable actual thoughts.
transfer unacceptable anxiety provoking thoughts or feelings to others; placing one's own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts belonged to them and not to oneself.
expressing feelings that would be threatening if directed at the real target onto a less threatening substitute target
turning socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behavior
falling back on childlike patterns as a way of coping with stressful situations
trying to become like someone else to deal with one's anxiety
followers of freud who developed their own competing psychodynamic theories
disagreed with freud about the nature of the unconscious mind. he believed that the unconscious held much more than personal fears, urges and memories. He believed there was a personal unconscious and a collective unconscious
Jung's analytical theory
archtypes, shadow, collective unconcious; psychological types- extraversion and introversion
Believed there was "womb envy"; focused on the child's sense of basic anxiety, the anxiety created in a child born into a world that is so much bigger and more powerful than the child.
Horney's sociocultural approach
disagreed with a number of Freud's ideas; emphasized culture and social elements; the "self"; pioneer in feminine psychology; moving toward people, away from people, against people
Developed the theory that as young, helpless children, people all develop feelings of inferiority when comparing themselves to the more powerful, superior adults in their world. Also developed a theory that the birth order of a child affected personality.
Adler's individual psychology
individual; inferiority complex; overcompensation complex
had its beginnings in the work of sigmund freud and still exists today. it focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in the development of personality. this perspective is also heavily focused on biological causes of personality disorders
based on the theories of learning; focuses on the effect of the environment on behavior
first arose as a reaction against the psychoanalytic and behaviorist perspectives and focuses on the role of each person's conscious life experiences and choices in personality development
concerned with the end result; the characteristics themselves. although some trait theorists assume that traits are biologically determined, others make no such assumption
the study of abnormal behavior
disorders in which a person adopts a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions
disorder in which a person has no morals or conscience and often behaves in an impulsive manner without regard for the consequences of that behavior
tendency to overreact and use excessive emotions to draw attention from and manipulate others. Love to be the center of attention
disorders in which the main symptom is excessive or unrealistic anxiety and fearfulness
anxiety that is unrelated to any realistic, known source
generalized anxiety disorder
disorder in which a person has feelings of dread and impending doom along with physical symptoms of stress, which lasts six months or more
an irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity
fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation
fear of objects or specific situations or events.
fear of being in a small, enclosed space
fear of heights
fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible
disorder in which intruding, recurring thoughts or obsessions create anxiety that is relieved by performing a repetitive, ritualistic behavior (compulsion)
disorders that take the form of bodily illnesses and symptoms but for which there are no real physical disorders.
disorder in which psychological stress causes a real physical disorder or illness
somatoform disorder in which the person experiences a specific symptom in the somatic nervous system's functioning, such as paralysis, numbness, or blindness,for which there is no physical cause
dissociative identity disorder
disorder occurring when a person seems to have two or more distinct personalities within one body
disorders in which there is a break in conscious awareness, memory, the sense of identity, or some combination
loss of memory for personal information, either partial or complete
traveling away from familiar surroundings with amnesia for the tip and possible amnesia for personal information
severe disorder in which the person suffers from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, hallucinations, and inability to distinguish between fantasy and reality
loners who are cool, distant, and unwilling and unable to form close relationships with others
difficulty in forming social relationships, odd and eccentric behavior, tendency to hold magical beliefs
a sexual disorder in which the person's preferred method of sexual arousal and fulfillment is through sexual behavior that is unusual or socially unacceptable.
characterized by sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving use of nonliving objects or body parts
refers to dressing as a member of the other gender to be sexually aroused. (not drag queens or female impersonators ) Almost exclusively a heterosexual male sexual variation and is essentially unknown among women
preferred or exclusive method of achieving sexual excitement by fantasizing or engaging in sexual activity with children.
derives sexual satisfaction from experiencing pain
derives sexual pleasure from inflicting pain on another person
extremely vain and self-involved
form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior
proposed a version of CBT called rational-emotive behavioral therapy (REBT), in which clients are taught a way to challenge their own irrational beliefs with more rational, helpful statements.
anti-anxiety, anti-manic, anti-depressant
drugs used to treat and calm anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers
drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior
drugs used to treat depression and anxiety
no more effective than no therapy at all
effectiveness of psychotherapy