When did the emancipation proclamation take affect
New Years Day of 1863
What did the 13th amendment do?
abolished slavery (1865)
Who were in the Freedman's Bureau of 1865?
Freedman were African Americans who were no longer slaves
Who was the director of the Freedman's Bureau of 1865?
General Oliver O. Howard
What was the mission of the Freedman's Bureau?
-established schools staffed by missionaries and teachers
-modest efforts to settle blacks on land
-designed to operate for one year
What was Lincoln's plan for reconstruction?
the 10% plan in 1863
What were the guidelines of the 10 % Plan
-10% of a state had to take oath of allegiance to begin to set up government
-offered a general amnesty to southerners who made a pledge of loyalty
-state would have to accept 13th amendment
-high ranking Confederate army officers and government officials wouldnt be granted a pardon
What did Lincoln not guarantee southerners in his 10% plan?
that their slaves would be protected, however their property was
Who supported the 10% plan and why?
moderate republicans in congress because tehy wanted a quick end to the war
WHo created the freedmans beurea?
How successful was the Freedman's Bureau?
only slightly more than the pocket vetoed Wade-Davis Bill
Who rejected the 10% plan?
Radical Republicans of Congress
Which states actually accepted the 10% plan and established new governments in 1864?
Louisiana, TN and arkansas
Who proposed the Wade Davis Bill
Radical Republicans in congress of 1864 in response to Lincolns 10 % plan
What did the Wade Davies Bill allow president to do?
appoint provisional governors
What were the rules of the Wade Davies Bill?
-a southern state could rejoin the union if 50% of its registered voters swore an "ironclad oath" of allegiance to the U.S.
Who could attend the convention?
only delegates who signed an ironclad oath and promised they did not serve for the south
What did the ironclad oath entail?
states would have to accept 13th amendment and disenfranchise military and political leaders
What did the Wade Davies Bill do for African American rights?
-established safeguards but didn't give them the right to vote
-political rights for blacks left up to southern states
Did the Wade Davies Bill pass?
passed by Congress but pocket vetoed by Lincoln in Dec. 1864
When was Lincoln assassinated?
April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth (Good Friday)
What was Johnson's reconstruction plan?
Restoration Plan of 1865
Describe Andrew Johnson
Democrat from TN and not well liked by Congress; was Lincolns VP and became president when shot
How did Lincoln feel about punishing southerners?
he did not want to punish them or reorganize their society
Did Lincoln want a long or short reconstruction?
short process in which the U.S. could go back to normal; unlike Radical Republicans
Who vetoes the renewal of Freedmen's Bureau charter?
Johnson in 1866 and the Civil Rights Act of 1866 is passed over his amendment
What were the outlines of Johnson's Reconstruction plan?
-offered amnesty to those who took oath
-said high ranking officials and property owners would have to apply for a pardon
-president would appoint a provisional governor for each state
-each state would have to accept the 13th amendment and then create a new government
What happened with the states vs. union by the end of 1865?
all states had returned under Lincoln/Johnson plan
What kind of government did Johnson want?
a stronger state government and believed in laissez faire
Define Laissez faire
federal government should stay out of the economic and social affairs of its people
What did Johnson believe about states rights?
that they took precedence over central authority and disapproved of legislation that affected economy
What plans did Johnson surprisingly reject?
the plans of the Radical Republicans attempts to dissolve plantation system, reorganize southern economy and protect black civil rights
Which president pardoned the most southerners?
What was Johnson's views on equality?
thought blacks should not have the same rights as whites in the union
How does Congress react to Johnson's Plan?
they reject it and start over
What causes the north to become even more radical?
the south passes black codes
What is the Joint Committee on Reconstruction of 1865?
what congress establishes in response to Johnsons plan
In 1866 who voted to renew the charter that created the Freedmen's Bureau?
What did congress create to override southern courts?
special legal courts
When was Freedmen's Bureau finally terminated?
What did congress pass in 1866 to prevent black codes and guarantee citizenship to all Americans?
The Civil Rights Act of 1866
Does the Civil Rights Act of 1866 pass?
Johnson vetoes it, but it is overridden so yes
What does the 14th amendment of 1866 say?
added to constitution 2 years later and gave citizenship for blacks
What does the congress ask of the new states?
that they accept 14th amendment; TN is only one
Which states reject accepting the 14th amendment?
delaware and kentucky
What court case did the Civil Rights Act of 1866 reverse?
The Dred Scott v. Sanford ruling by supreme court, which stated that blacks were not citizens
Where did major riots erupt after the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and 14th amendment?
Memphis and New Orleans
Who made the speech "Swing Around the Circle"
president Johnson when he placed the blame for riots on radical republicans
What was the new era of reconstruction called after the elections of 1866?
What southern state is first to be admitted to the union?
What party gains almost complete control after elections of 1866?
What were the terms of the MIlitary Reconstruction act in 1867?
-combined remaining ten states into 5 military districts
-military commander governs each district
-began to register all black and white males who didnt participate in war
-new voters set up new government and had to accept 13 and 14 amendment
By 1868 how man states had been readmitted to the union after reconstruction plan?
What was the 15th amendment?
congress passed it and gave all American males the right to vote in 1870
Who were the last 3 states remaining in the union that had to pass all 3 amendments (13.14. and 15)
Virginia, Texas and Mississippi
By what year had all states been readmitted into the union?
Who was andrew johnsons enemy?
What did Andrew Johnson try and do to prevent Military Reconstruction?
vetoed each of their bills, but all three vetoes are overridden by congress
How was life for the Blacks as these new amendments and rights were being passed?
southerners ignored these new laws so not much was changing
What is the Tenure of Office Act
congress passes this and it requires that the president seek congressional approval for removing a cabinet member
Who was Edwin M. Stanton
secretary of war that the republicans were aiming to keep in office, but Johnson fires him in 1867 while congress is in recess
Who does Johnson replace Stanton with?
Ulysses S. Grant but he resigns
Who brings up impeachment charges on Johnson and for what?
the Congress for violating the Tenure of Office Act
Who impeaches Johnson by a vote of 126-47
the House of Representatives
Who tries Johnson?
Is Johnson actually impeached?
the 35 to 19 vote falls one vote short of 2/3 vote needed, he actually ends up leaving office that year
Who wins the election of 1868?
the Radical Republicans with Ulysses S. Grant
What were the Southern states in Lincoln's eyes?
individual, rebellious states
What battle gave lincoln the courage to start the emancipation proclamation?
the defeat at Antietam
Does the emancipation proclamation free all slaves?
NO; only free in states that were in rebellion or occupied by union; so not Maryland, Delaware and Missouri
what is a Scallywag?
a southerner who jumps into republican party and very eager to be loyal to the union; "traitor to southerners"
what is a carpetbagger?
northerners who try to come into south and build up northern traditions down south; viewed as stealing southern goods and living on southern land
How long were the schools of the Freedman's Bureau designed to operate?
How many southern whites were excluded from voting and office?
In how many states were the majority of voters black?
5 of the 10
What did blacks start to do to take advantage of their new voting majority?
-black office holders
HOw many blacks served in the House from 1869-1901
How many blacks were senators from 1869-1901?
2; Hiram Revels and Blanche K. Bruce of Mississippi
How successful were blacks becoming after reconstruction?
mixed success as public debt dramatically increasing
How many schools did Freedman's Bureau help to reeducate by 1870 in the South?
9000 teachers and 200,000 students
What were the school rates in the South by 1876?
50% white and 40% blacks
By 1876 were schools still segregated?
what is sharecropping?
where blacks would work for a share of the crops
Crop Lien System?
banks put lien on crops to lend money
What were literacy tests?
blacks were tested for literacy before they could vote
What was the poll tax?
where blacks were forced to pay before they could vote
what were grandfather clause?
allowed poor whites ot vote who could not pay or read by excluding blacks whose ancestors were slaves
Who were the redeemers?
*also known as the Bourbons
-white majorities began to reclaim the political majority in most southern states
What were the Jim Crow Laws
began to separate the races by segregating facilities
Name 3 vigilante groups who used violence to enforce social laws
KKK, Knights of the White Camellia and the Red Shirts
What did the Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871 do?
tried to combat groups like the KKK
-troops were sent to 9 districts in SC
By what year did violence start to decline?
What did the Jim Crowe laws encourage?
violence; 187 lynchings by 1890
Who wins control of the house in 1874?
By the election of 1876 who becomes tired of the fight?
By the election of 1876, who begins to ally with the South?
By 1876, how many states were under military rule?
Who ran in the election of 1876?
Sam Tilden of NY (democrats) vs. Rutherford B. Hayes (republican)
Who won the election campaign of 1876?
Tilden by 300,000 votes
Who wins the presidency of 1876?
Rutherford B. Hayes with all 20 votes in favor of him from congress etc..: wins by 1 vote
What was the compromise of 1877
-military reconstruction ends
-southern democrats use "Home Rule" in south
-appointment of at least one Southerner in cabinet
-generous internal improvements for South(railroads)
-left Civil rights alone and thus the rise of Jim Crowism
Which two court cases supported segregation?
1) Plessy vs. Ferguson of 1896-seperate but equal
2) Cummings v. County Board of Ed of 1899-segregation of schools