How is an ingeous rock born?
How is an igenous rock formed?
form the cooling of liquid magma
When magma is cooled UNDERGROUND it is called...
When magma is cooled ABOVE-GROUND it is called...
When an ingeous rock is formed UNDERGOUND it is called...
When an igneous rock is formed ABOVE-GROUND it is called...
When an ingrous rock cools UNGERGROUND, it cools...
When an igneous rock cools ON THE SURFACE of the earth, it cools...
When an igneous rock cools IN WATER, it...
When an igneous rock cools IN THE AIR it cools...
even more quickly than in water
What can help you tell how fast a rock cooled?
by the size of its crystals
What happens when you cant see any crystals?
then it is quenches meaning it cooled in water and looks glassy
When the crystals on an igneous rock are extremely small then how fast and where did they cool?
very quickly in the air
When you can see the crystals of an ingeous with your naked eye how fast and were did they cool?
quickly on the surface
When you can see the crystals of an igneous rock are as large as your finger how fast and where did they cool?
How do you tell the types of ingeous rocks apart?
What doe the texture of a crystal consist of?
1.) the size of the minerals crystals
2.) the presence of glassy materials
3.) the presence of rounded pores (openings)
Big crystals = ____1____ texture = ___2____ cooling time = ____3_____
1 = corse
2 = long (years)
3 = intrustive
Little crystals = ___1____ texture = ___2_____ cooling time = _____3_____
1 = fine
2 = short (miuntes, hours, days)
3 = extrusive
Why are vesicles formed?
because there were volcanic gasses trapped there at one time
Light colored igneous rocks are...
What are felsic rocks made of?
Dark colored rocks are ...
What are mafic rocks made of?
proxyene, olivine, and feldspar
What is clast?
another name for small pieces of sediment of rock material
What are the 3 types of sedimentary rocks?
What are clastic sedimentary rocks?
rocks that contain silt, clay or sand are are cemented together
What are chemical sedimentary rocks?
a rock that is formed from the precipitationof dissovled minerals from water that form crystals
What are 3 examples of chemical sedimentary rocks?
1.) rock gypsum
3.) rock salt
What are biocastic sedimentary rocks?
rocks that are made of shels are previous living plants and animals (fossils)
What are the three ways that sedimentary rocks form?
3.) compaction / burrial
What is compaction / burrial?
the clastic deposit is burried and overlying stuff compress and the clasts together pushing out any pore water and closing the pore spaces
What is cememtation?
water rich in mineral infiltrates and the clasts evaporates leaving behind hard cement that glue the clasts together
How do you tell a sedimentary rock from other types of rocks?
1.) made of fragments of other rocks
2.) most are clastic
3.) most hare rounded because of weathering and erosion
4.) some contain biologic debris
5.) form parallel layers sorted by size, type or color
6.) they contain features that suggest they formed on the earths surface
7.) composed of interconnected mineral crystals of a single mineral variety
What is a type of rock that is composed of only one mineral?
chemical => crystaline => limestone
How are dolostone and rock gypsum formed?
precipitates and evaporates
How is a rock changed into a metamorphic rock?
by heat and pressure and/or minerla fluids but noy by weathering or melting
What is contact metamorphism?
when a body of magma pushes up and intrudes on other rocks, the surrounding ricks get baked because of the heat
What is regional metamorphism?
when large sections of the lithisphere collide, the rocks are squished and subjected to high temperature and pressure; the rocks become folded/bent
How are metamorphic rocks separated?
2.) no foliated
how are non floiated rocks formed?
by added heat or large scale heat and pressure
What are non folited rocks compsed of?
interconnected mineral crystals
What don't non foliated rocks look like?
sheet like rocks
What is low grade metamorphism?
- the rock breaks into smooth layers
- there are no visible crystals
What is low medium grade metamorphism?
the rock looks like slate but has a shiny surface
What is high medium grade metamorphism?
the rick has clear layers and the mineral crystals are just visible and the rock has a hogh mica content
What is high grade metamorphism?
rock has coarse foliations and the minerla crystals are easy to see