A&P lecture final

200 terms by Leinne 

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Questions on all tests will be on the final. Questions 1-50--Exam 5, Ch 11,13 Questions 50-100--Exam 4, Ch 8,9 Questions 100-150--Exam Questions 150-200--Exam 4,5 Questions 200-250--Exam 1,3

Aortic arch, left subclavian artery, left axillary artery, left brachial artery

Which of these pathways correctly traces blood as it travels from the aortic arch to the left arm?

simple diffusion

Exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by:

oxyhemoglobin

Oxygen binds with hemoglobin in the blood to form:

4500 mL/minute (beats per minute multiplied by stroke volume equals cardiac output)

A person with a heart rate of 75 beats per minute and a stroke volume of 60 mL per beat has a cardiac output of:

vital capacity

The respiratory movement representing total amount of exchangeable air is:

both lungs have two lobes

Which one is NOT true of the lungs?

surfactant

The lipid molecule critical to lung function that coats the gas-exposed alveolar surfaces is called:

a decrease in both heart rate and cardiac output

An increase in parasympathetic activity (primarily by the vagus nerves) causes:

deoxygenated blood into the right atrium

The superior vena cava empties:

apnea

Cessation of breathing is called:

arteries

In which of the following blood vessels is blood pressure the highest:

speak

Following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to:

right atrium

The sinoatrial node is located in the:

glottis

The opening between the vocal cords is called the:

myocardium

the thick layer of the heart wall that contains contractile cardiac tissue is the:

kidneys

The right and left renal veins empty blood from the:

visceral pleura

The serous membrane covering the surfaces of the lungs is called the:

pulmonary ventilation

Air moving in and out of the lungs is called:

tricuspid valve

The right AV valve is known as the:

arteries, arterioles, capillary beds, venules, veins

The path of blood flow within the systemic vascular system is:

pulmonary trunk

Which one of the following vessels receives blood during right ventricular systole:

right atrium

Which area of the heart receives blood from the systemic veins:

right common carotid artery

Which one of the following does NOT receive blood directly from the aortic arch:

internal respiration

The gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systemic capillaries is called:

epiglottis

The flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the:

often have valves to prevent backflow of blood

Veins:

alveoli

The conducting passageways of the respiratory system include all of the following structures except:

the intrapulmonary volume must increase

In order to inspire:

transport oxygenated blood to the heart

Pulmonary veins:

stroke volume

The volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle with each beat of the heart is called the:

nasopharynx

The pharyngotympanic tubes, which drain the middle ear, open into the:

three cusps and opens when the left ventricle contracts

The aortic semilunar valve is composed of:

they are olfactory receptors for smell

Which one is NOT a function of the paranasal sinuses:

interventricular septum

What structure divides the left from the right ventricle:

incompetent venous valves

Varicose veins are caused by:

nasopharynx

Air from the nasal cavity enters the superior portion of the pharynx called the:

tunica externa, tunica media, tunica intima

Which one is the correct sequence going from the outermost to the innermost layer of a blood vessel wall:

left ventricle to the left atrium

When the ventricles contract, the bicuspid (mitral) valve prevents blood from flowing from the:

COPD and lung cancer

Which of the following are currently the most damaging and disabling respiratory diseases in the United States:

primary bronchi

Which one of the following structures is NOT a part of the respiratory zone:

drains blood from the radial and ulnar veins, then empties that blood into the axillary vein

The brachial vein:

lingual tonsils

Tonsils that lie at the base of the tongue are called:

tachycardia

A heart rate over 100 beats per minute is called:

trap incoming bacterial and other foreign debris

What is the role of mucus in the nasal cavity:

sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node, atrioventricular (AV) bundle, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

Which one of the following represents the correct path for transmission of an impulse in the intrinsic conduction system of the heart:

pulmonary vein

Which one of the following blood vessels carries the oxygenated blood:

toward the throat to be swallowed or spat out

Cilia of the trachea that beat continually propel contaminated mucus:

exchange gases

The respiratory conducting passageways that perform all of the following functions EXCEPT:

extremely slow breathing

Hypoventilation dramatically increases carbonic acid concentration and involves:

most patients have a genetic predisposition to COPD

Which one of the following is NOT a feature of COPD:

sclera

The fibrous outermost tunic seen anteriorly as the "white of the eye is the:

cornea

The transparent central portion of the sclera through which light enters the eye is called the:

choroid

The middle coat of the eyeball that contains pigment which prevents light from scattering in the eye is called the:

retina

Which layer of the eye contains rods and cones:

blue, green, and red

The three sets of color receptors within the retina are sensitive to wavelengths of visible light that are:

iris

The pigmented portion of the eye that has a rounded opening through which light passes is the:

lacrimal duct

The gland that produces tears in the eye is called the:

vitreous humor

The gel-like substance that reinforces the eyeball and prevents it from collapsing inward is the:

lens

What structure of the eye focuses light on the retina:

myopia

The inability to see distant objects is termed "nearsighted" or:

cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor

Which one of the following correctly lists the order of the parts through which light passes as it enters the eye:

tympanic membrane

Sounds waves entering the external auditory canal hit the eardrum also known as the:

malleus, incus, stapes

The pathway of vibrations through the ossicles from the tympanic membrane, or eardrum, also known as the:

inner ear

Equilibrium receptors are located in the:

incus

The auditory ossicle called the "anvil" is also called the:

ossicles

Which one of the following is NOT part of the inner ear:

semicircular canals

Dynamic equilibrium receptors are found in the:

smell

Gustatory hairs are to taste as olfactory hairs are to:

pungent

Which one of the following is NOT a primary taste sensation:

lemons

Stimulation of sour receptors occurs in response to:

body coordination

Which one of the following is NOT one of the major processes controlled by hormones:

hormones

The chemical messengers of the endocrine system are known as:

goiter

An enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting from deficiency of dietary iodine is called:

iodine

The element necessary in the diet for proper thyroid function is:

calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

Which of these hormones regulate calcium levels in the body:

epinephrine

Which one of the following is NOT produced by the adrenal cortex:

epinephrine

Which of these hormones is released by the adrenal medulla:

reabsorb sodium

Rising blood levels of aldosterone cause the kidney tubules to:

renin

The enzyme produced by the kidneys when blood pressure drops, stimulating a release of aldosterone, is called:

regulate salt content of the blood

Glucocorticoids do all of the following EXCEPT:

epinephrine

The "fight-or-flight" response triggers the release of:

beta cells

Insulin is produced by cells of the pancreatic islets called:

glucagon

Insulin works as an antagonist to:

a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose

Insulin causes:

melatonin

The pineal gland produces:

melatonin

The hormone that appears to help regulate our sleep-awake cycles is:

stimulate growth of facial hair

Estrogens do all of the following except:

antidiuretic hormone

Which of these hormones does NOT play a role in reproduction:

oxytocin

Which of these hormones is NOT produced by the anerior lobe of the pituitary gland:

development of breasts

The secondary sex characteristics brought about by testosterone secretion do NOT include:

progesterone

Which hormone works with estrogen to bring about the menstrual cycle:

thyroid hormone

The body's major metabolic hormone is called:

below the Adam's apple

The thyroid gland is located:

most hormones

Negative feedback mechanisms regulate:

hormonal stimulus

Most endocrine organs are prodded into action by other hormones; this type of stimulus is called:

stimulate other endocrine glands to secrete hormones

Tropic hormones:

promotes growth in long bones and skeletal muscles

Growth hormone:

antidiuretic hormone

Which one of the following is NOT an anterior pituitary hormone:

luteinizing hormone

The hormone that triggers ovulation of an egg from the female ovary is:

pituitary hormone

The hypothalamus is most closely associated with the:

cardiac muscle and smooth muscle

Muscle tissue that has involuntary regulation of contraction is:

skeletal muscle only

The muscle tissue type that consists of single, very long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells with very obvious striations is:

sarcolemma

The plasma membrane of a muscle cell is called the:

hematopoiesis

Which of the following is NOT a function of the muscular system:

the contractile unit between two Z discs

A sarcomere is:

thick filaments

Which one of the following is composed of myosin protein:

neuromuscular junction

The axon terminals of a nerve cell and the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle cell join at the:

a sliding of thin filaments past thick ones

The mechanical force of contraction is generated by:

a neotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle

Acetylcholine is:

synaptic cleft

The gap between the axon terminal of a motor neuron and the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle cell is called the:

actin filaments

During skeletal muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to active sites of:

regulate intracellular calcium concentration

The major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle contraction is to:

the arrangements of myofilaments

The striations that give skeletal muscle its characteristic striped appearance are produced, for the most part, by:

pushing against a stationary wall

Which one of the following muscle actions would NOT be classified as an ISOTONIC contraction:

insufficient intracellular quantities of ATP due to excessive consumption

The condition of skeletal muscle fatigue can be best explained by:

synergist only

A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a(n):

closes, purses, and protrudes the lips

Which one of the following is the action of the orbicularis oris:

abduction

While doing "jumping jacks" during exercise class, your arms and legs move laterally away from the midline of your body. This motion is called:

hamstring muscle group

Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the knee:

the soleus

Which of the following muscles inserts on the calcaneus:

brain and spinal cord

The term central nervous system refers to the:

the spinal and cranial nerves

The peripheral nervous system consists of:

Schwann cells

Which of these cells are not a type of neuroglia found in the central nervous system (CNS):

axon

The Schwann cell forms a myelin sheath around the:

dendrites

The neuron processes that normally receive incoming stimuli are called:

ganglia

Collections of nerve cell bodies inside the central nervous system (CNS) are called:

association neuron

A neuron with a cell body located in the CNS whose primary function is connecting other neurons is called a(n):

CNS

White matters refers to myelinated fibers in the:

myelinated

Impulse conduction is fastest in neurons that are:

is essential for nerve impulse propagation

An action potential:

irritability

The ability to respond to a stimulus is termed:

synaptic cleft

The gap between two communicating neurons is termed:

a neurotransmitter

The substance that is released at axonal endings to propagate a nervous impulse is called:

receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector

Which of the following is the correct sequence in a typical arc reflex:

effectors

Muscles and glands are:

midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

The three major parts of the brain stem are:

gyri: sulci

The elevated ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are known as________, while the shallow grooves are termed as ____________.

brain stem

The midbrain, pons,and medulla oblongata are housed in the:

hypothalamus

The pituitary gland is most closely associated with the:

cerebellum

Loss of muscle coordination results from damage to the:

parasympathetic nervous system

The effects of the sympathetic nervous system are essentially opposite of the:

decreases heart rate

Which of the following effects is characteristic of the parasympathetic nervous system:

sympathetic nervous system

Preparing for the "fight or flight" response during threatening situations is the role of the:

skeletal muscle

Which one of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system:

autonomic nervous system

The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are subdivisions of the:

brachia

Which of the nerve plexuses serves the shoulder and arm:

sensory nerves; efferent nerves

Afferent nerves are callled __________, and the motor nerves are called __________.

epineurium, perineum, endoneurium

Which one of the following is the correct sequence in connective tissue sheaths, going from outermost to innermost layer:

cervical spine nerves, lumbar spinal nerves, thoracic spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves

Which one of the following is the correct sequence of nerves that exit the spinal cord, going from superior to inferior:

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