Human Evolution

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21 terms

Ape

Includes gorilla, orangutan, gibbon and chimpanzee. No tail, large brain; brachiating knuckle walkers

Australopithecus

Group of extinct omnivorous bipedal hominins. Includes A. anamensis, afarensis and africanus

Bipedalism

Walking on 2 legs. Only Australopithecus, Paranthropus and Homo genuses

Broca's area

Area of brain that produces speech

Brow ridge

Bony projection protecting eyes. Prominent in early humans

Cranium

Raised back of skull holding brain

Cultural evolution

Evolution of culture (weapons, tools, art, music, ritual)

Hominid

Family that include apes and humans

Mesolithic

Middle Stone Age, characterized by fishing and foraging for wild grains

Neolithic

New Stone Age - age of agriculture

Paleolithic

Old Stone Age

Paranthropus

Genus of vegetarian hominins includes P.aethiopicus, robustus and boisei

Primate

Order that includes prosimians, monkeys, apes and humans

Sexual dimorphism

Where the male is larger and has structural differences from the female

Simian

Monkey-like

Upper Paleolithic

Culture of Homo Sapiens

Wernicke's area

Area in the brain concerned with recognition of speech

opposable thumb

primate characteristic of having a thumb that can cross the palm and meet the other fingertips; enables animal to grasp and cling to objects.

prehensile tail

long muscular tail used as a fifth limb for grasping and wrapping around objects; characteristic of many New World monkeys.

Neandertal

archaic Homo sapiens that lived from 35 000 to 100 000 years ago faces with prominent noses and brains at least as large as those of modern humans

Cro-Magnon

modern form of Homo sapiens that spread throughout Europe between 35 000 to 40 000 years ago; were identical to modern humans in height, skull and tooth structure, and brain size.

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