a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
Caucasoid, Negroid, Mongoloid
people with light skin and fine hair
people with dark skin and coarse hair
people with yellow or brown skin and distinctive folds on their eyelids
Where is there more genetic variation?
within categories and not between them
a shared cultural heritage; based on common ancestors, language, and religion
Difference between race and ethnicity
Race is constructed from biological traits and ethnicity is constructed from cultural traits
any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart or subordinates
Two important characteristics of minority
distinct identity and subordination
society imposes them based on physical or cultural traits
society imposes the experience of subordination on minorities
a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people; are prejudgments that can be either positive or negative
a simplified description applied to every person in some category
refers to how closely people are willing to interact with members of some category
the belief that one racial category in innately superior or inferior to another
prejudice springs from frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged
a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom other people unfairly blame for their own troubles
Authoritarian Personality Theory
people who show strong prejudice toward one minority usually are intolerant of all minorities
rigidly conform to conventional cultural values and see moral issues as clear-cut matters of right and wrong
although extreme prejudice is found in certain people, some prejudice is found in everyone
prejudice is used as a tool by powerful people not only to justify privilege for themselves but also to oppress others
minorities themselves encourage race consciousness to win greater power and privileges. Because of historical disadvantage, minorities claim that they are victims entitled to special consideration based on their race.
unequal treatment of various categories of people
Difference between Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice refers to attitudes and Discrimination refers to actions
Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination
bias built into the operation of society's institutions
Patterns of Majority and Minority Interactions
four models are: pluralism, assimilation, segregation, genocide
a state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing
the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
the physical and social separation of categories of people
the systematic killing of one category of people by another
Europeans justified killing them, even though in reality they were peaceful and passive, by calling them thieves and murderers. Then got land through more pluralistic approach by using treaties. Then finally forced assimilation and moved them to "reservations"
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants
Dominated nation after European settlement began. Found at all class levels. Not subject to prejudice and discrimination other categories experience. WASPs cultural legacy remains. English remains dominate language and Protestant the dominate religion.
Originated by being transported here for slavery. Glaring contradiction to Declaration of Independence. "American Dilemma": Gunnar, democratic society's denial of basic rights and freedoms to an entire category of people. Whites claimed they were naturally inferior. Amendments 13-15 abolished slavery and granted rights. A civil rights movement occurred and grew. Made remarkable achievement but some inequality still exists.
High academic achievers, made economic gains, most are middle class and live in suburbs. Despite this they are still sometimes treated with hostility or avoided.
Economic hard times and competition for jobs is what lead to discrimination and prejudice.
differed from Chinese in three important ways:
1. fewer Japanese immigrant so they escaped some hostility the more numerous Chinese faced
2. Japanese knew much more about the U.S so they assimilated better
3. they preferred rural farming to clustering in cities which made them less visable
forced to relocate after WWII bombing but staged dramatic recovery after
Largest racial or ethnic minority. 2/3 are Mexican Americans. Mainly live in the west. In California 1/4 are Latinos.
More immigrants come from Mexico then anywhere else. 1/4 of families are poor, nearly double national average
Puerto Ricans Americans
1/3 severely disadvantaged. Adjusting to cultural patterns, including language, is a major challenge. "Revolving door pattern": more people leave each leave than enter.
most successful group of Hispanics
Numbers are increasing. People of all social class. Higher than average poverty rate. Highly educated.
White Ethnic Americans
Non-WASPs. More than half population falls here.