APHG Chapter 13 (Urban Geography)

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Census Tract

An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of hte Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods

Concentric Zone Model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.

Megalopolis

Greek word for "great city." Region described as an MSA that may overlap and cause several large metropolitan areas to come so close together that they form one continuous urban complex

Edge City

Cities that are located on the on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decetralized suburban environment

Filtering

A process of change in the use of a house, from a single family owner occupancy to abandonment

Gateway City

Airport or seaport that serves as the entry point to a country by being the primary arrival and departure point.

Gentrification

the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)

Greenbelt

A ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area

Megacity

A city having a population of one million or more.

MSA (Metropolitan Statistical Area)

In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county withing whica the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indication a functional connection to the central city

Multiple Nuclei Model

A model of the internal structure of cities which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities

NIMBY

Used to express opposition by local citizens to the locating in their neighborhood of a civic project, as a jail, garbage dump, or drug rehabilitation center, that, though needed by the larger community, is considered unsightly, dangerous, or likely to lead to decreased property values.

Peripheral Model

A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounding by large suburban residential and business area tied together by a beltway or ring road

Public Housing

Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.

Redline

Illegal practice of refusing to make mortgage loans or issue insurance policies in specific areas for reasons other than economic qualifications of applicants

Rush (peak) Hour

The four consecutive 15 minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic

Sector Model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the CBD

Smart Growth

Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and a preserve farmland

Squatter Settlement

An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures

Suburbanization

The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.

Urban Sprawl

The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.

Urbanization

An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.

Urban Realm

A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).

Urban Morphology

The study of the physical form and structure of urban places

Zoning Ordinance

A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.

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