those that we are born with and those that we are acquired from
present at birth that provide nonspecific resistance to infection
are specific and must be acquired
first line of defense
any barrier that blocks invasion at the portal of entry-nonspecific
second line of defense
protective cells and fluids; inflammation and phagocytosis-nonspecific
third line of defense
acquired with exposure to foreign substance; produces protective antibodies and creates memory cells-specific
the study of the body's second third lines of defense
Fnx's of a healthy functioning immune system:
surveillance of the body, recognition of foreign material, destruction of entities deemed to be foreign
white blood cells (leukocytes)
innate capacity to recognize and differentiate any foreign material
normal cells of the body
pathogen-associated patterns (PAMPS)
molecules shared by microorganisms
pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs)
receptors on WBC's for PAMP'sneutrophils
55%-90% of wbc's, multilobed nuclei;small purple granules containing digestive enzymes. FNX is general phagocytosis. Life span 2 days,w with only 4-10 hours spent in circulation
1%-3% wbc's, Bilobed nucleus w/ lg orange granules containing toxic proteins, inflammatory mediators,and digestive enzymes. FNX is destruction of lg eukaryotic pathogens such as worms and fungi. Found in higher #'s in spleen and bone marrow.
0.5%of wbc's, pale staining contricted nuclei w/ dark blue-black granules. FNX respond to lg eukaryotic pathogens and recruit other leukocytes. Cytoplasmic granules contain histamines,prostaglandins,and chemical mediators of the allergic response.
3%-7%wbc's, largest WBC;nuclei lg,ovoid, and often indented--no cytoplasmic granules visible. FNX phagocytosis, followed by final differentiation into macrophages and dendritic cells. Monocytes also secrete chemicalks that moderatwe the fnx's of the immune system.
20%-35%wbc's Small spherical cells with uniformly staining dark, round nuclei FNX is specific (acquired) immunity. 2 types of lymphs exist Tcells responsible for cell mediated immunity, B cells are responsible for humoral immunity.