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italian invasion

mussolini attacks ethiopia in 1935

anschluss

germany's union with austria

sudetenland

land between germany and france where no military is to take place

hitler

his nazi party promised to put german people back to work. he had a racist vision for the future in service of the aryan mass

totalitarianism

a type of government that exercised massive,direct control over virtually all the activities of its subjects

falange

fascist party

tojo hideki

leader of japan who followed the same ideals as mussolini and hitler

axis powers

the linkage between berlin,rome,and tokyo

national socialist party

led by hitler; picked up political support during the economic chaos of great depression; advocated authoriarian state under single leader

hitler's rise to power

hitler rose to power through the national socialist party. he also combined his ideals with mussolini and hideki in the idea of fascism/nazism

benito mussolini

italian fascist leader after world war i; created first fascist government based on aggressive foreign policy and nationalist glory

spanish civil war

germany and italy supported the royalists; the soviet union supported the republicans; the royalist forces won

tripartite pact

the alliance between japan,germany,and italy

nonaggression pact

hitler signed a pact with the soviet union for the soviet union gaining part of poland on september i,1939 brough the british and french to declare war on germany

blitzkrieg

lightning warfare; involved rapid movement of aiplanes,tanks, and mechanized troop carriers

henri petain

leader of french collaboration government establied in 104- in soutern france following defeatt of french armies by german

final solution

the destruction rather than the removal of the jewish people

normandy invasion

On 6 June 1944 the Western Allies landed in northern France, opening the long-awaited "Second Front" against Adolf Hitler's Germany. Though they had been fighting in mainland Italy for some nine months, the Normandy invasion was in a strategically more important region, setting the stage to drive the Germans from France and ultimately destroy the National Socialist regime.

battle of the bulge

hitler's last ditch effort to repel the inading allied armies in the winter of 1944-1945

douglas mcarthur

was America's senior military commander in the Far East during World War Two. MacArthur found fame as the officer who led America's withdrawal from the Philippines with the quote "I shall return". It was a promise that Douglas MacArthur was to fulfill.

george patton

was a United States Army officer best known for his leadership while commanding corps and armies as a general during World War II. He was also well known for his eccentricity and controversial outspokenness.

lemay

in charge of american air operations ordered mass aerial bombardment of highly vulnerable japanese cities

eisenhower

prepared landings in northern france that would carry the war into the fortress of the nazis

russia in 1942

german forces drove deep into russia in the spring of

peace treaty

the establishment of the united nations

members of the un

the united states,soviet union,britain,france,and china

zionists

the united states and britain were zionists who insised that jews have their own homeland

apartheid

policy of strict racial segregation imposed in south africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically

algerian independence

won their independence in 1962 after a bitter civil war

1980

the end of african colonization

atlantic charter

world war ii alliance agreement between the united states and britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which hey live; indicated sympathy for decolonization

marshall plan

programof substanial loans iniated by the united states in rebuilding from the wars devastation

truman doctrine

directed against communist pressures on greece and turkey

soviet provinces

latvia,lithania,and estonia

iron curtain

phrase coined by winston churchill to describe the divide between free and communist societies taking shape in europe

center for cold war

soviet union

eastern bloc

nations fovorable to the soviet union in eastern europe during the cold war-particularly poland,czechoslovakia,bulgaria,romania,hungary,and east germany

marshall plan

program of substantial loans initiated by the united states in 1947; designed to aid western nations in rebuilding from the war's deevastation; vehicle for american economic dominance

us military

us military units were stationed in europe on either side of cold war divide

christian democrats

wanted democratic institutions and moderate social reforms

federal republic of germany

france,britain,and the united states merged into this which would avoid the mistakes of earlier western republic

welfare state

new activism of the western european state in economic policy and welfare issues after world war ii; introduced programs to reduce the impat of economic inequality

technocrat

new type of bureaucrat; intensely trained in engineering or economics and devoted to the power of national planning; came to fore in offices of governments following world war ii

green movement

political parties,especially in europe, focusing on environmental issues and control over economic growth

margaret thatcher

in 1979 british conservative leader who began the longest running prime ministership in 20th century; worked to cut welfare and housing expenses and to promote free enterprise

1950 economy

agricultural production; expensive consumer products support growing factories; center of weapon production. through the european union,tariffs were reduced among member nations

agricultual production

production increased rapidly, as peasant farmers,backed by technocrats adopted new equipment and seeds; less efficient than north america

women's rights

from the early 1950s the number of working women steadily increase, improved work qualifications; growing employment of women; of the western nations, switzerland wa the only one who refused women's voting rights. gains in higher education were considerable; access to divorce and birth control

simon de beauvoir

a french intellectual in 1949 who published the second sex

betty friedan

a united states femist leader who wrote the feminine mystique

western ideals

advances in scientific field in postwar years; nuclear research; arts maintaine the theme of self expression and nonreperesentational techniques

solidarity

polish labor movement formed in 1970s under lech walesa; challenged ussr dominated government of poland

orthodox

the tsarist regime declared war on the orthodox church and other religions after 1917, seeking to shape a secular population that would maintain a marxist, scientific orthodoxy. although the new regime did not attempt to abolish the orthodox church

alexander solzhenitsyn

russian author critial of the soviet regime but also of western materialism; published trilogy on the siberian prison camps, the gulog archipelago

soviet economy

rapid growth of manufacturing; state control of virtuallly all exonomic sectors; lagged behind in the priorities it placed on consumer goods

nikita khruschev

stalin's successor as head of ussr from 1953 to 1964; attacked stalinism in 1956 fro concentration of power and arbitrary dictorship; failure of siberian development program and antagonism of stalinists led to downfall

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