psy test # 3- chapter 12

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abnormal psy

the hallucinations and distortions of perception some drugs produce are called

intoxication

a college professor's work performance recently has deteriorated, and the professor's colleagues find the professor difficult to talk to. if this is due to a problem with drugs, the best description of this professor's behavior as detailed above would be

substance abuse

a frequent drug user finds that more and more drug is necessary to produce the same "high" that much lower doses once produced. that drug user is developing

tolerance

the long-term pattern of maladaptive behavior caused by the regular use of some chemical or drug is called.

substance abuse

melanie has take a lot of the drug that she was offered and in spite of being obviously uncoordinated and under the influence she wants to drive her car. her condition is an example of

intoxication

intoxication is actually a form of

poisoning

Mendon began taking one amphetamine a day to control his appetite. after a month or so it did not work as well but two pills did. this is an example of

tolerance

jenny simply can not get up in the morning without her uppers, those little amphetamine pills her friend gave her. she feels she must take them every day. she has

substance dependence/ addiction

a newly developed drug causes users to lose some muscle control, slurring their speech and slowing central nervous system activity. most likely this new drug is a

depressants

alcohol works as a central nervous system depressant by

binding neurons to receptors

if all you know about someone is that the person has been binge drinking in the past month, then you know the person had at least

five drinks at a time at least once and is probably male

women tolerate alcohol less well then men because

less alcohol dehydrogenates (stomach enzymes)

the blood-alcohol level that typically produces the symptoms of intoxication is _____ of the blood volume

.09

a person has ingested enough ethyl alcohol to lose consciousness, but not enough to produce death. the most probably alcohol concentration in that person, expressed as a percent of blood volume is

.40

a friend of yours who has been doing some recent heavy drinking asks you what to do to "sober up" as quickly as possible. your best answer would be

time and metabolism

two people of the same gender and weight consume the same amount of alcohol in the same amount of time. nevertheless, one of them sobers up substantially sooner than the other. most likely, this difference is due to

metabolism

a full-time college student has just become a college dropout. the chances that alcohol was a factor in the dropout is about

1 in 4

one study shows that, in "substance-free" dorms, the percent of students who are binge drinkers is

36%

perhaps the most important criticism of studies of binge drinking is that they

rely on student self-reports

according to a recent study by Henry Wechsler and his colleagues at the Harvard School of Public Health, the best predictor of college binge drinking is

living in a frat or sorority house

the severe withdrawal symptoms seen in alcohol withdrawal are known as

delirium tremens

a person you know has just started experiencing delirium tremens. probably they will last

2-3 days

in what proportion of suicides and rapes in the US does alcoholism play a role

1/3

the scarring of the liver caused by alcohol consumption is known as

cirrhosis

a patient in an alcohol rehabilitation center tells you a detailed story about growing up in the mountains of Tennessee. Later, you find out that the person in fact never even visited Tennessee. a day later you visit the patient again, and the patient does not recognize you. most likely, the patient is suffering from

corsecaugh syndrome

a combination of alcohol abuse and a vitamin-B deficiency can lead to

...

Kelly is a long-time serious drinker. In the last year she has started having huge memory lapses. When this happens she makes up wild soties to help her fill in what she does not remember. this syndrome is called

confabulation

drinking alcohol during pregnancy can damage the developing embryo and fetus, resulting in

fetal alcohol syndrome

Nan took the drug she has handed and in a few minutes felt calm and drowsy, and then went to sleep. she probably took

a sedative-hypnotic drug

a pattern of mental retardation, head and facial deformities, heart defects, and slow growth characterizes one with

fetal alcohol syndrome

barbiturates were first prescribed to help people

fight anxiety and to help people sleep

the part of the brain that appears to be affected by high doses of barbiturates is the

reticular information

barbiturates primarily affect the neurotransmitter

GABA

because of the likelihood of convulsions, withdrawal from _____ is especially dangerous

barbituates

a wounded veteran of the US civil war suffering from "soldiers' disease" most likely was suffering from

addiction to morphine

if a physician wanted to relieve anxiety with a lesser risk of drowsiness, overdose, and slowed breathing, the physician would prescribe

benzodyazapines

" a powerful remedy for coughs," stated an advertisement in a 1903 medical journal, referring to a drug developed by the Elberfeld Company, called

heroin

a friend says, " I want to minimize my risks of organ damage and long-lasting mental change, " and then asks, "What kind of drug should I most avoid?" your best answer is

alcohol

the drug with the lowest risks for drug dependency and long-term behavioral change is

cannabis

after the accident, Kendra was taken to the hospital with broken legs and arms. they almost immediately gave her a shot that reduced her pain. the shot was probably

morphine

all the opioid drugs are known as

narcotics

unlike the opioid drugs morphine and heroin, methadone

synthetic

Serina has just had a shot of heroin. she feels intense pleasure very quickly. this is

a rush

the drug which would produce effects similar to what the neurotransmitters called endorphins produce---pleasurable, calming feelings--- is

heroin

during his first night in the detoxification unit, Quent developed what seemed like a case of the flu. he ached all over and had diarrhea. he was probably withdrawing from

heroin

a person who has injected a narcotic feels relaxed, happy and unconcerned about food, sex or other bodily needs. this person is experiencing what is known as

high

a heroin overdose is likely to occur when

one has been without heroin for a period of time- then takes the usual dose

why is the risk of transmitting AIDS an important factor or heroin users

dirty needles

in the past 25 years, the rate of opioid addiction in the united states has

down and up at least two times

mario felt awake and alive and as though he could conquer the world after taking

stimulant

about what percent of the population becomes dependent on cocaine at some point in their lives

3%

the withdrawal symptoms that persist for more than a few weeks are likely to result from addiction to

cocaine

ellen stopped taking her regular amount of cocaine after using it for months. she will probably experience

depression and fatigue

free-basing has the effect of making

more concentrated

"why is crack becoming more popular in the high schools?" a friend asks. your best data-based reply is

its cheap and fast

if you were trying to convince a friend not to be a cocaine user, what would you cite as the greatest risk coming from cocaine use

overdose effects

amphetamine users run an unusually high risk of becoming dependent because amphetamines

produce drug tolerance quickly

a friend asks you for advice about how to stop smoking. based on the data, your best advice to your friend would be

try aversion therapy; example= rapid smoking

the stimulant used by more people in the world than any other is

caffeine

how many cups of coffee would one have to drink to produce seizures and respiratory or circulatory failure

100

consumption of which drug has decreased among americans since the mid-1980's

caffeine

a person who took a drug an hour or two ago sits alone, quietly and intensely listening--- so the person says-- to the sap running in a tree, the leaves of which appear a brilliant purple to the drug user. most likely, the person has recently used

a hallucinogen: LSD

while under the influence of LSD, Matilda believes that she can feel the sounds around her. this effect is known as

synesthesia

what is the risk of tolerance and physical addiction to hallucinogens as compared to other addictive drugs

minimal

the chief danger of LSD use is

possibility of very powerful, sometime, negative reactions

a person takes a drug at noon. although remaining awake and alert, the person experiences poor coordination, palpitations, and greatly enhanced visual perceptions. by dinner, the symptoms have pretty well subsided. most likely that person took

LSD

at the rave a student took a drug which caused a great burst of energy, along with badly distorted visual experiences. most likely, the drug the student took was

ecstasy

months after last taking a drug, a former drug abuser still produces very little serotonin the person is depressed and anxious, and has great difficulty remembering new material. most likely, the abused drug-- if it were a single drug-- was

ex

the most powerful form of cannabis is

hashish

the duration of most of the effects of cannabis is about

3-6 hours

polysubstance use involving illegal drugs occurs in about what percent of US illegal drug users

over 60%

studies attempting to relate personality traits to potential for developing substance abuse show that

no single trait or combination predicts substance abuse

drug dependence may develop because one finds it rewarding- what approach is this an example of

behavioral

assume you have a 14-year-old child who says to you, "why can't i start drinking? a lot of my friends drink: What is the big deal?" based on the most up to date research, your best answer is

those who being drinking before age 15, are more likely to become alcoholics

the fastest way to get a drug to the brain is

inhalation

daniel an intravenous heroin user, feels intense cravings when he sees hypodermic needles. this might be an example of

classical conditioning

the ideal stimuli that gives pleasure lead to brain processes that counteract the effects of that pleasure is consistent with an explanation for drug use based on

opponent processes

if genetics plays a strong role in the development of cocaine abuse, we would expect to find the lowest concordance rates for cocaine abuse among

genetically unrelated pairs of people

adoption studies of alcoholic's children have uncovered

even if adopted at birth, if a child's biological parents were alcoholics, they are more likely to become alcoholics

assume a researcher finds that overuse of a drug reduces the body's production of neurotransmitters. thus, if an abuser of this drug stops taking the drug, withdrawal symtpms occur until the brain begins producing normal levels of neurotransmitters again. such a finding would most directly support which view of the cause of substance-abuse disorders

biochemistry

research indicates that the most important neurotransmitter in the "pleasure pathway" of the brain is probably

dopamine

a client being treated for alcohol abuse recieves just enough of a drug called curare to produce temporary paralysis just as that client takes a swig of beer. presumably, sufficient pairings of paralysis and alcohol will reduce the client's desire for alcohol. this procedure is called

aversion therapy

psychodynamic therapies may not be very effective in the treatment of substance-related disorders because

the habit actually is also a lifestyle or becomes a lifestyle

cocaine abusers on an impatient ward earn rewards-- and eventual release from the program-- if they produce periodic urine samples that are free of the drug. the program they are in is a form of

operant conditioning

jason, a recovering heavy drinker, has been trained to identify the situations that might cause him to drink and to be aware of when he should stop drinking. this approach is known as

relapse prevention training

jess thought she was taking an aspirin. but later when she had a glass of wine and became very nauseated she realized the pill was

disulfiram

the purpose of an antagonist drug is to

drugs which effects oppose each other- ex: stimulants and depressants

the use of narcotic antagonists can be dangerous. this is based on their ability to initiate

severe withdrawal

the use of methadone in drug maintenance programs is controversial because methadone

produces a withdrawal more difficult than heroin withdrawal

the fact that a self-help group like Alcoholics anonymous, which provides peer support and specific guidelines, helps many in their struggle with alocholism

socio-cultural

hanna goes to a meeting because her husband is an alcoholic who only occasionally can abstain from alcohol. the meetings with other people in similar situations helps her cope. she probably attends meetings of

alanon

most evidence for the effectiveness of self-help programs comes from

testimonials from those who have been through the program

a clinician wishes to begin a drug abuse prevention campaign in a community. the most important thing the clinician can do is to

produce consistent messages across the media about drug abuse

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