the study of the physical form and structure of urban places. ex: studying the buildings of houston.
people living in a large densely populated municipality. ex: houston
relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area
A relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Starting over 10,000 years ago, people began to cluster in agricultural villages as they stayed in one place to tend their crops. ex: places in rural areas.
enable a formation of cities, coincides with social stratification excess of agricultural crops.
the condition of being arranged in social strata or classes within a group. ex: middle class
group of decision-makers and organizers in early cities who controlled the resources, and often the lives, of others. ex: president
first urban revolution
The innovation of the city, which occurred independently in five separate hearths. ex: occured many years ago.
the land between the Tigris and Euphrates.
Nile River Valley
fertile land in North Africa near the Nile River
Huang He and Wei
Rivers in present-day China; it was at the confluence of the Huang He and Wei Rivers where chronologically the fourth urban hearth was founded by the Chinese.
Mexico and Central America
the citadel in ancient Greek towns
the marketplace in ancient Greece
a place of assembly for the people in ancient Greece
physical position in relation to the surroundings. ex: by that tree over there
region adjacent to every town and city within which its influence is dominant
The movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest regions(Sunbelt) of the United States. ex: migration
the division of a city into different regions or zones (e.g. residential or industrial) for certain purposes or functions (e.g. housing or manufacturing).
(anatomy) any encircling or beltlike structure
central business district
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
the central part of a city
a residential district located on the outskirts of a city
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe. ex:
concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
clusters of large buildings away from the central business district ex: Magnolia
A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.
generally passed by municipal governments, that control the kind and amount of development in an area
Illegal practice of refusing to make mortgage loans or issue insurance policies in specific areas for reasons other than economic qualifications of applicants
Illegal practice of inducing homeowners to sell their properties by telling them that a certain people of a certain race, national origin or religion are moving into the area
the act of commercializing something
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
Homes bought in many American suburbs with the intent of tearing them down and replacing them with much larger homes often referred to as McMansions.
Homes referred to as such because of their "super size" and similarity in appearance to other such homes; homes often built in place of tear-downs in American suburbs.
an aggregation or continuous network of urban communities
Outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
Restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests. Although predominantly high-income based, in North America gated communities are increasingly a middle-class phenomenon.
Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product; as opposed to a formal economy
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
a city that ranks first in a nation in terms of population and economy
spaces of consumption
Areas of a city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services' driven primarily by the global media industry.